Chimie occulte par Annie Besant et C.W. Leadbeater :: | Géometrie sacrée

Théosophie: chimie occulte par Annie Besant et C.W. Leadbeater ::

voyant
Observations sur
Éléments chimiques

de

Annie Besant et Charles W. Leadbeater

Édition révisée éditée par A.P. Sinnett
Londres
Théosophique
ÉDITION
1, Upper Woburn Place

1919
PRÉFACE DE LA RÉDACTION.

Quand j'ai entrepris de préparer une nouvelle édition de ce livre, on m'a accordé la permission
des auteurs pour "le mettre dans la forme que vous pensez qu'il serait
actuellement les plus utiles. "Il a été laissé à ma discrétion," Quoi utiliser
et quoi laisser de côté. "Je n'ai pas jugé nécessaire de m'appliquer à personne
portée importante de ce dernier permis. Mais comme le contenu de
Le livre a été initialement arrangé, le lecteur était mal préparé à apprécier
l'importance de la recherche récente pour les cas d'introduction manquants qui explique
comment cela a commencé et comment les premières recherches ont mené à la dernière étude.
J'ai donc contribué un tout nouveau chapitre préliminaire qui,
J'espère, aidez le lecteur à réaliser la crédibilité des résultats obtenus
lorsque les formes moléculaires et la composition des nombreux corps ont été étudiées
a été définitivement observé. Je n'ai pas essayé de réviser les dossiers pour
des recherches ultérieures où je n'avais pas de partie personnelle, donc dès le début
Le chapitre III à la fin est le livre dans sa forme actuelle simplement une empreinte de
l'édition originale à l'exception de la correction de quelques fautes de frappe banalisées.

J'ai donc cherché dès le début à gagner une place de choix
La valeur scientifique du livre lumineux dépend de la constitution de la matière.
Le monde doit aux scientifiques du genre ordinaire une dette qui ne peut être
surfaite, mais jusqu'à présent, ils préfèrent continuer
progressivement, de point en point, déteste le saut dans l'obscurité, le saut maintenant
L'équipe n'est dans le noir que pour ceux qui ne veulent pas réaliser ce progrès
obtenus grâce à la recherche instrumentale doivent tôt ou tard être
complété par des méthodes plus subtiles. La science physique a atteint la conception
que les atomes dans les corps appelés jusqu'ici les éléments chimiques sont chacun
composé d'atomes plus petits. La recherche instrumentale ne peut pas déterminer combien,
dans chaque cas. Des recherches occultes ont révélé le nombre réel de
observation directe, puis découvert la loi qui régit les nombres dans tout
cas, et le rapport de ces nombres aux poids atomiques. La loi
Le dévoilement est une démonstration de la précision du premier direct
observations, et ce principe une fois établi la crédibilité
comptes qui sont maintenant donnés de la disposition des petits atomes dans les molécules de
Je pense que les nombreux éléments qui ont été étudiés ont parcouru un long chemin
rapproché les preuves.

Il reste à voir – pas à quelle distance, mais plutôt à quelle vitesse le monde scientifique
acceptera largement les conclusions de ce volume comme une
contribution à la science, et mélanger la science en laboratoire avec elle
variété qui a jusqu'à présent été appelée occulte.



CONTENU.



CHIMIE OCCULTE.

CHAPITRE I.

UNE ENQUÊTE PRÉLIMINAIRE.

Le profond intérêt et l'importance des recherches décrites dans ce livre
serait mieux apprécié s'il était présenté par un exposé des circonstances
dont il est issu. La première édition, composée principalement d'articles
rendu à partir de théosophiste, traité en même temps les stades ultérieurs
de la recherche d'une manière qui, bien que compréhensible pour l'étudiant occulte,
doit avoir été assez déroutant pour le lecteur ordinaire. Ces derniers
cependant, les phases précédentes donnent un sens aux résultats antérieurs
le début ne peut être que vaguement supposé. J'ai un meilleur droit
effectuer la tâche qui m'a été assignée – la tâche de préparer le présent
édition – parce que c'était en ma présence et avec moi
demander que les premières tentatives soient faites pour percer le mystère
renferme auparavant la molécule ultime de matière.

Je me souviens très bien de l'occasion. M. Leadbeater vivait alors dans la mienne
maison, et ses facultés clairvoyantes étaient souvent exercées pour
profiter de moi, ma femme et les amis théosophiques qui nous entourent. j'avais
découvert que ces facultés exercent dans la bonne direction,
étaient ultramicroscopiques dans leur pouvoir. Il m’a frappé une fois de demander à M.
Leadbeater s'il pensait qu'il pouvait réellement voir une molécule physique
Cas. Il était tout à fait disposé à essayer, et j'ai suggéré une molécule d'or qui
celui qu'il peut essayer d'observer. Il a fait un effort approprié, et
en est sorti et a dit que la molécule en question était trop élaborée
structure à décrire. Il s'agissait évidemment d'un grand nombre
quelques atomes plus petits, bien trop nombreux pour être comptés; trop compliqué dans son
schéma à comprendre. Cela m’a tout de suite frappé que cela pouvait être dû
au fait que l'or était un métal lourd avec un poids atomique élevé, et que
l'observation peut être plus efficace si elle est dirigée vers un petit organe atomique
poids, j'ai donc suggéré un atome d'hydrogène comme peut-être plus gérable. MONSIEUR.
Leadbeater a accepté la proposition et a réessayé. Cette fois, il a trouvé
l'atome d'hydrogène est beaucoup plus facile que l'autre, ce qui rend les petits atomes
qui constituait l'atome d'hydrogène pouvait être compté. Ils étaient disposés en un
plan spécifique, qui deviendra plus tard compréhensible avec des graphiques, et
était dix-huit.

Nous avons réalisé à l’heure actuelle l’énorme importance de cette
découvertes, faites en 1895, bien avant la découverte du radium
a permis aux physiciens du type ordinaire d’améliorer leur connaissance des
électron. Quel que soit le nom donné au corps instantané, il est reconnu
maintenant par la science ordinaire ainsi que par l'observation occulte, comme les bases
unité de matière physique. Dans cette mesure, la science ordinaire est passée
recherche occulte que je dois faire, mais cette recherche a rapidement conduit à
étudiant occulte dans les régions du savoir où, il est certainement,
le physicien ordinaire doit le suivre à aucune date lointaine.

Une fois que la recherche a commencé comme je l'ai décrit, a été examinée
intensément intéressant. Mme Besant a coopéré presque immédiatement avec M.
Leadbeater dans sa progression. Encouragé par le succès de l'hydrogène,
les deux gaz importants, l'oxygène et l'azote, ont été étudiés. Il s'est avéré
être plus difficile à manipuler que l'hydrogène, mais étaient gérables.
L'oxygène était constitué de 290 atomes plus petits et l'azote de 261. Le leur
le regroupement sera décrit plus loin. L'intérêt et l'importance de
l'ensemble du sujet est mieux apprécié par une indication approximative des résultats
atteint. Le lecteur aura alors plus de patience en suivant
subtilités avec les découvertes ultérieures.

Les chiffres qui viennent d'être cités ont vite été perçus comme pouvant avoir une signification.
Le poids atomique de l'oxygène est souvent utilisé comme 16. C'est-à-dire, un atome
l'oxygène est seize fois plus lourd qu'un atome d'hydrogène. De cette façon,
à travers le tableau des poids atomiques, l'hydrogène est pris comme unité
toute tentative d'estimer son poids absolu. Mais maintenant avec
atome d'hydrogène disséqué, pour ainsi dire, et se compose de 18
quelque chose, alors que l'atome d'oxygène se composait de 290 des mêmes choses,
que seize à une relation réapparaît: 290 divisé par 18 nous donne 16 et
fraction décimale d'une minute. Encore une fois, le nombre d'azote divisé par 18 nous donne
14 et une fraction minute en conséquence, et qui est l'atome accepté
poids d'azote. Cela nous a donné un aperçu d'un principe qui peut tout faire fonctionner
à travers le tableau des poids atomiques. Pour des raisons liées aux autres
travail, il était impossible pour les auteurs de ce livre de continuer
Des recherches plus approfondies au moment de son lancement. Les résultats déjà présentés ont été
publié comme un article dans le magazine qui s'appelait alors Lucifer, auberge
Novembre 1895 et a été réimprimé dans une brochure distincte intitulée
"Chimie occulte", une brochure où les exemplaires restants seront un jour
une confirmation reconnue de la méthode à venir
être généralement appliquée à l'exploration des mystères de la nature. Pour
des recherches ultérieures que ce volume aborde établit le principe
avec une force qu'aucun lecteur loyal ne peut difficilement résister. Avec
patience et industrie – les écrivains qui reçoivent de l'aide pour compter
qui sera décrit (et la méthode utilisée impliquait une vérification des
précision des dénombrements) – les plus petits atomes dans presque tous les produits chimiques connus
Des éléments, comme on les appelle souvent, ont été prononcés et
le même rapport à leurs poids atomiques comme indiqué par les cas
l'oxygène et l'azote. Ce résultat jette une preuve complète de l'original
estimation du nombre d'atomes plus petits dans l'hydrogène, un nombre qui est commun
Jusqu'à présent, la recherche n'a pas réussi à établir. La conjecture a été
très différent, de l'unité à plusieurs centaines, mais peu familier avec
la méthode lucide, le physicien ordinaire n'a aucun moyen d'atteindre
faits.

Avant de passer aux détails des recherches récentes, certains sont très importants
Les résultats des premiers travaux doivent d'abord être expliqués. Que j'ai
déjà dit faculté clairvoyante d'ordre approprié adressée
De minuscules phénomènes naturels sont pratiquement sans fin dans leur région. Pas content
en estimant le nombre d'atomes plus petits dans les molécules physiques, les auteurs
a continué à étudier les plus petits atomes individuellement. Ils ont été trouvés
structures compliquées comme dans cette introduction
cartographier l'ensemble du sujet, je n'arrêterai pas d'expliquer (explication complète
sera trouvé plus tard) et ils sont composés d'atomes appartenant à un
le domaine ultra-physique de la nature que l'occultiste a longtemps été avec
connu et décrit comme «La planète astrale». Quelques critiques assez pédantes
ont trouvé à redire au terme, car l’avion lui-même est bien sûr
vraiment une sphère qui entoure complètement le globe physique, mais comme tout le monde
Les occultistes comprennent le mot «avion» signifie simplement une condition pour
la nature. Chaque état, et il y en a beaucoup plus que les deux ci-dessous
prévenant, se mêler au voisin,
via Structure atomique. Ainsi, les atomes de la planète astrale en combinaison
donner naissance à la plus grande variété de matière physique, l'éther de l'espace,
qui n'est pas homogène, mais vraiment de nature atomique, et minute
les atomes qui composent les molécules physiques sont des atomes d'éther, "éthérique
atomes ", comme nous avons maintenant appris à les appeler.

De nombreux physiciens, mais pas tous, se tourneront vers l'idée de traiter l'éther
de l'espace comme atomique. Mais dans tous les cas, l'occultiste a la satisfaction de
sachant que le grand chimiste russe, Mendeleef, préférait l'atome
théorie. Dans le livre récent de Sir William Tilden intitulé "Chemical Discovery and
Invention du XXe siècle, «je lis le Mendeleef», quand je détourne le regard
vues conventionnelles ", supposait que l'éther avait une molécule ou atomique
structure, et au fil du temps, tous les physiciens doivent réaliser que
L'électron n'est pas, comme beaucoup le supposent actuellement, une force nucléaire, bien que
un atome d'éther ayant une charge unitaire spécifique d'électricité.

Bien avant la découverte du radium a conduit à la reconnaissance de l'électron
comme constituant commun à tous les corps précédemment décrits comme chimiques
éléments, les particules de matière pertinentes ont été identifiées
avec les rayons cathodiques observés dans les tubes à vide de Sir William Crooke. Quand une
le courant électrique passe à travers un tuyau à partir duquel l'air (ou un autre gaz)
qu'il peut contenir) est presque complètement épuisé, une lueur lumineuse imprègne
le tube vient évidemment de la cathode ou de la borne négative
circuit. Cet effet a été étudié en profondeur par Sir William Crookes.
Entre autres caractéristiques, il a été constaté que si une minute éolienne était réglée
dans le tube avant qu'il ne soit épuisé, le rayon cathodique a attrapé les ailes
tourner, suggérant ainsi l'idée qu'ils étaient constitués de particules réelles
poussé contre les aubes; le faisceau est donc évidemment plus d'un
juste un effet éclairant. Voici une énergie mécanique à expliquer, et à
à première vue, il semblait difficile de concilier les faits observés avec
l'idée qui se glisse en faveur que les particules déjà investies de
le nom "électron", les atomes avec électricité étaient purs et simples. L'électricité était
trouvé, ou certains physiciens exceptionnels pensaient avoir trouvé
électricité
en soi avait l'inertie. Ainsi, les éoliennes dans les tubes à vide de Crooke étaient
est soupçonné d'être déplacé par l'influence des atomes électriques.

Puis au cours de l'avancée des recherches ordinaires, la découverte du radium de Madame
Curie en 1902 a donné un tout nouveau visage au thème
des électrons. Les particules bêta dérivées du radium ont rapidement été identifiées
avec les électrons du rayon cathodique. Puis vint la découverte que
L'hélium gazeux, auparavant traité comme un élément distinct, a évolué comme un
conséquence de la désintégration du radium. Transmutation, jusque-là
ri comme une superstition de l'alchimiste, entré tranquillement
région des phénomènes naturels acceptés, et les éléments chimiques ont été ajoutés
être des corps constitués d'électrons en nombre variable et probablement en nombre variable
arrangements. Enfin, la science ordinaire avait atteint un résultat important
des recherches occultes menées sept ans plus tôt. Il n'a pas encore
atteint les meilleurs résultats de la recherche occulte – la structure de
atome d'hydrogène avec dix-huit atomes éthériques et le chemin
le poids atomique de tous les éléments s'explique par le nombre d'atomes d'éther
entrer dans la Constitution.

La salle mange, bien qu'elle défie l'examen minutieux instrumental, relève
l'ampleur de la faculté clairvoyante et des découvertes profondément intéressantes
a été faite dans le cadre de ce que j'ai appelé les premières recherches en rapport avec
cette branche d'enquête. Les atomes éthériques sont combinés pour former des molécules dans de nombreux
différentes manières, mais des combinaisons impliquant moins d'atomes que les dix-huit
donnant naissance à l'hydrogène n'affecte pas les sens physiques, ni
sur les instruments physiques pour la recherche. Ils donnent lieu à des variantes de
l'éther moléculaire, dont la compréhension commence à éclairer le domaine de
mystère naturel qui n'est pas encore complètement résolu par le physicien ordinaire.
Les combinaisons inférieures à 18 en nombre donnent lieu à trois variantes moléculaires
l'éther, dont les fonctions à mesure qu'elles sont étudiées plus en détail
constitue un département des sciences naturelles sur le seuil que nous
se dresse déjà. Un jour, on pourrait nous présenter un volume sur l'occulte
La physique est aussi importante à sa manière que la thèse actuelle sur l'occulte
Chimie.



CHAPITRE II.

DÉTAILS DE LA RECHERCHE ANTICIPÉE.

L'article qui montre les résultats des recherches menées au cours de l'année
1895 (voir le numéro de novembre de l'année où le magazine s'appelait alors
Lucifer
), a commencé par quelques remarques générales sur la faculté visionnaire,
déjà discuté dans le chapitre précédent. L'enregistrement d'origine continue ensuite
Suivant:-

Le monde physique est considéré comme composé de soixante à
soixante-dix éléments chimiques, réunis en un nombre infini
combinaisons. Ces combinaisons relèvent des trois principaux chefs de solides,
les liquides et les gaz, les substituts reconnus des matériaux physiques, avec
théoriquement, l'éther n'est guère utilisé comme matériau. Ether est le scientifique
pas un sous-état ou même un cas, mais c'est quelque chose à part
lui-même. Il ne serait pas permis que l'or soit élevé dans l'éther
état qu'il peut être pour le liquide et le gazeux; tandis que l'occultiste
sachez que le gaz est suivi de la substance éthérique, qui est le solide
suivi du liquide, et il sait aussi que le mot "éther" couvre quatre
des substituts différents les uns des autres, tels que les solides, les liquides et les gaz,
et que tous les éléments chimiques ont leurs quatre substituts éthériques,
le plus élevé est commun à tous et se compose des atomes physiques ultimes
à laquelle tous les éléments peuvent enfin être réduits. L'atome chimique est regardé
comme la particule ultime de tout élément, et est considéré comme indivisible
et incapable d'exister dans un état libre. Les enquêtes de M. Crooke ont mené
chimistes plus avancés pour considérer les atomes comme composite, comme un ou plusieurs
agrégation complexe de protyle.

Pour la vision astrale, l'éther est une chose visible et est perçu comme omniprésent
substances et encercle chaque particule. Un corps "solide" est un corps composé
d'un grand nombre de particules en suspension dans l'éther, chacune vibrant en arrière
et en avant dans un domaine particulier à grande vitesse; particules
sont plus fortement attirés les uns que les autres
influences extérieures, et ils "cohérents" ou maintiennent les uns contre les autres une
certainement une relation dans la chambre. Un examen plus approfondi montre que l'éther n'est pas
homogène, mais composé de particules de plusieurs types, différentes
collections de minuscules corps les composant; et un de plus soigneusement
une méthode d'analyse détaillée révèle qu'elle a quatre degrés différents,
nous fournit les sept solides, liquides et gazeux au lieu de quatre
substituts de la matière dans le monde physique.

Ces quatre substituts éthériques sont mieux compris si la méthode est
expliquées au fur et à mesure de leur étude. Cette méthode consistait à prendre ce
est appelé un atome de gaz, et le brise à maintes reprises, jusqu'à ce que
s'est avéré être l'atome physique ultime a été atteint, la rupture de cette
la dernière a entraîné la production de matière astrale et non plus de matière physique.

Substituts de matière pour l'hydrogène, l'oxygène et l'azote.

Bien sûr, il est impossible de transmettre les idées claires avec des mots
est atteint par la vision directe des objets de l'étude, et l'accompagnement
diagramme – le caractère intelligent de la description donnée par les enquêteurs – est
offert en compensation, aussi grave soit-il, pour le manque de vision
lecteurs. Les lignes horizontales séparent les sept substituts
de la matière; solide, liquide, gaz, éther 4, éther 3, éther 2, éther 1. On
le niveau de gaz est représenté par trois atomes chimiques, l'un d'hydrogène (H), l'un des
l'oxygène (O), l'un de l'azote (N). Les changements ultérieurs que chacun a subis
l'atome chimique est représenté dans les pièces verticalement au-dessus,
colonne de gauche montrant une fracture de l'atome d'hydrogène, milieu
colonne à l'atome d'oxygène, colonne de droite, azote
atome. L'atome physique final est marqué une, et n'est dessiné qu'une seule fois,
bien qu'il en soit de même partout. Les numéros 18, 290 et 261 sont-ils
nombre des atomes physiques ultimes trouvés dans un atome chimique.

Les points indiquent les lignes le long desquelles la force est observée à jouer, et
les pointes de flèches indiquent la direction des forces. Aucune tentative n'a été faite
montrer cela sous E 2 sauf pour l'hydrogène. Les lettres données
vise à aider le lecteur à retrouver un organe particulier; Donc
dans l'atome chimique oxygène au niveau du gaz se retrouve à E 4, E 3,
et E 2. Il faut se rappeler que les corps représentés schématiquement en aucun
façon d'indiquer la taille relative; comme un corps est élevé d'un sous-état à elle
juste au-dessus, il est énormément agrandi à cet effet
enquête, et l'atome final de E 1 est représenté par le point une
au niveau du gaz.

Le premier atome chimique choisi pour cette étude était un atome de
l'hydrogène (H). Lorsque nous l'avons examiné attentivement, il semblait être composé de six
petits corps, contenus sous la forme d'un œuf. Il a tourné à grande vitesse
sur son propre axe, vibre en même temps, et les corps intérieurs
effectué des girations similaires. L'atome entier tourne et tremble, et doit être
avant même qu'une observation précise ne soit possible. Les six petits corps sont
disposés en deux ensembles de trois, formant deux triangles qui ne sont pas
interchangeables mais liés les uns aux autres en tant qu'objet et image. (Le
les lignes dans le diagramme du sous-plan gazeux ne sont pas des lignes de force,
mais montrez les deux triangles; sur une surface plane, l’interpénétration de
triangles ne peuvent pas être clairement affichés.) De plus, les six corps ne sont pas tous
aimer; Ils contiennent chacun trois corps plus petits – dont chacun est un
atome physique final – mais dans deux d'entre eux, les trois atomes sont disposés en un
ligne, tandis que les quatre autres sont disposés en triangle.

La paroi du sphéroïde limiteur dans lequel les corps sont fermés est
composé de matière du troisième type, ou gazeux, tombe lorsque
l'atome gazeux est élevé au niveau suivant et les six corps sont libérés.
Ils s'organisent en même temps en deux triangles, chacun entouré d'un
sphère limitante; les deux marques b dans le diagramme rejoindre l'un des
ils remarquent b & # 39; pour former un corps qui montre un caractère positif,
bois résiduel formant un autre type de corps négatif. Ces formulaires
particules d'hydrogène dans le plan éther le plus bas, étiquetées E 4 – éther 4 – sur
diagramme. Au fur et à mesure qu'ils les soulèvent, ils subissent une résolution différente,
perd ses murs d'enceinte; le corps positif de E 4 quand il perd le mur,
deux corps, l'une des deux particules, sont étiquetés b,
se caractérise par la disposition linéaire des atomes finaux contenus,
enfermé dans un mur, et l'autre est le troisième corps entouré par E 4 et
maintenant libéré. Le corps négatif de E 4 de la même manière quand il perd le mur,
devenir deux corps, dont l'un se compose des deux particules marquées b & # 39;,
et l'autre le corps restant, est libéré. Ces corps libres ne
rester sur E 3, mais passer immédiatement à E 2, en le laissant positif et négatif
corps, contenant chacun deux particules, représentant l'hydrogène
E 3. Lorsque vous prenez ces corps un peu plus haut, leur mur disparaît et
les corps intérieurs sont libérés, ceux contenant les atomes disposés linéairement
être positif et ceux avec le schéma triangulaire sont négatifs.
Ces deux formes représentent l'hydrogène sur E 2, mais des organes similaires dans cet état
de la matière s'est avérée être incluse dans d'autres combinaisons, comme le montre
fait référence à F sur E 2 azote (N). Sur élever ces corps encore
Un pas de plus, les murs s'éloignent des atomes contenus
libre, et nous atteignons l'atome physique ultime, le cas de E 1. Le
la dissolution de celle-ci libère des particules de matière astrale, nous l'avons donc
atteint cette limite de matière physique. Le lecteur théosophique
Remarquons avec intérêt que l'on peut ainsi observer sept substituts distincts
matière physique, et rien de plus.

L'atome final, qui est le même dans tous les cas observés, est un
corps extrêmement complexe, et seules ses principales propriétés sont données dans
diagramme. Il est composé de spirales, et la spirale est à son tour
composé de spirilæ, et ces encore de minutes spirilæ. Un assez précis
Le dessin est donné dans les «Principes de lumière et de couleur» de Babbitt p
les illustrations fournies par des combinaisons atomiques sont complètement fausses et
trompeur, mais si le poêle passe par le centre de l'atome individuel
supprimée, l'image peut être prise correctement et en donnera une idée
la complexité de cette entité de base dans l'univers physique.

Lorsque nous nous tournons vers le côté force de l'atome et ses combinaisons, nous l'observons
la force s'écoule dans la dépression en forme de cœur au sommet de l'atome, et
problèmes du point de vue, et sont changé le caractère du passage; plus loin,
la force se précipite à travers chaque spirale et chaque spirille, et les changements
nuances de couleur qui se détachent de la rotation rapide et de la vibration
l'atome dépend des multiples activités de la spirale; parfois un,
parfois un autre, jeté dans une action plus énergique, et avec le changement
d'activité d'une spirale à l'autre change la couleur.

La construction d'un atome d'hydrogène gazeux peut être retracée vers le bas à partir de E1,
et comme indiqué ci-dessus, les lignes données dans le schéma sont destinées
indiquent le jeu des forces qui provoquent de multiples combinaisons.
Lorsque nous parlons en général, les corps positifs sont caractérisés par des atomes contenus
mettre leurs points les uns contre les autres et au milieu de la combinaison,
et se rejeter extérieurement; les corps négatifs sont marqués
la dépression en forme de cœur est tournée vers l'intérieur et a tendance à se déplacer
les uns contre les autres au lieu de s'éloigner. Chaque combinaison commence par un bien-être
de force dans un centre, qui formera le milieu de la combinaison; dans
première combinaison d'hydrogène positif, E 2, un atome qui tourne à angle droit
au plan du papier et tourne également autour de son propre axe, formant
centre, et forcer, se précipiter au point inférieur, dépêchez-vous
dépression de deux autres atomes, qui se sont ensuite installés avec leurs points
au centre ville; les lignes sont représentées en + b, figure de droite. (Main gauche
la figure indique la révolution des atomes séparément.) Comme cet atome
la triade s'enroule, elle vide un espace et repousse
problèmes indifférenciés au sujet de l'avion, et fait un mur tourbillonnant
de cette question, faisant ainsi le premier pas vers la constitution du
atome d'hydrogène. Une triade atomique négative est formée de la même manière, les trois atomes
étant symétriquement disposé autour du centre de la force de sélection. Celles-ci
les triades atomiques sont ensuite combinées, deux des schémas linéaires étant attirés
les uns des autres, et deux triangulaires, forçant à nouveau la richesse et en formant un
centrer et agir sur les triades comme sur un seul atome, et une paroi limite
se forme à nouveau lorsque la combinaison tourne autour du centre. Le suivant
la scène est produite par chacune de ces combinaisons sur E 3 qui s’attire
une troisième triade atomique de type triangulaire de E 2, en mettant en place une
nouveau centre de force encourageante, suivant les lignes tracées
combinaisons de E 4. Deux d'entre elles s'unissent et leurs triangles
interpénétrant, l'atome chimique est formé et nous trouvons qu'il contient
tous les dix-huit atomes physiques ultimes.

Le médicament suivant qui a été étudié était l'oxygène, un médicament beaucoup plus compliqué et
corps déroutant; les difficultés d'observation ont été considérablement accrues
l'activité extraordinaire montrée par cet élément et l'éclat éblouissant
de certains de ses constituants. L'atome gazeux est un corps ovoïde
un corps de serpent enroulé en spirale tourne à grande vitesse, cinq
des taches brillantes et brillantes qui brillent sur les bobines. Le serpent semble en être un
corps arrondi solide, mais lors de l'élévation de l'atome à E 4, le tuyau se divise
longitudinalement en deux corps ondulés, et voilà à quoi vous ressemblez
la solidité est due au fait que celles-ci tournent autour d'un axe commun opposé
directions, présentant ainsi une surface continue, qu'un feu peut être
fait de tourbillonner un bâton lumineux. Les corps brillants vus dans l'atome sont
sur les vagues des vagues dans le tube positif et dans les grottes
négatif; le serpent lui-même se compose de petits corps ressemblant à des perles, onze
qui s'interpose entre les plus grandes taches brillantes. Sur l'élévation de ces corps
aux tubes E 3, chaque point lumineux porte six perles
d'un côté et cinq de l'autre; ces torsions et gonflent encore avec
la même activité extraordinaire, rappelant les lucioles stimulées à l'état sauvage
girations. On peut voir que les plus grands corps brillants entourent chacun
sept atomes ultimes, tandis que les perles en entourent chacune deux. (Chaque point lumineux
avec les onze perles enfermées dans un mur, omises par inadvertance dans
diagramme.) Dans l'étape suivante, E 2, les fragments des tuyaux sont brisés en
leurs électeurs; les corps positifs et négatifs, mis en évidence
et d & # 39;, montre une différence dans la disposition des atomes
leur. Ceux-ci finissent par se dissoudre, libérant le physique final
atomes, identiques à ceux obtenus à partir de l'hydrogène. Le nombre d'ultime
les atomes contenus dans l'atome d'oxygène gazeux sont 290, qui se composent des éléments suivants:

2 dans chaque perle, dont il fait 110:

7 dans chaque point lumineux, dont il est de 10;

2 x 110 + 70 = 290.

Lorsque les observateurs ont calculé cela, ils l'ont comparé au nombre
atomes ultimes dans l'hydrogène: –

Le nombre respectif d'atomes ultimes contenus dans un atome chimique de
Ces deux organes sont donc considérés comme conformes à leurs
numéros de poids.

On peut dire en passant qu'un atome d'ozone chimique apparaît comme un obate
sphéroïde, avec la spirale contenue très compressée et expansée
centre; la bobine se compose de trois tubes, un positif et deux négatifs,
formé dans un seul corps rotatif. Sur l'élévation de l'atome chimique au prochain
l'avion, le serpent se divise en trois, chacun enfermé dans son propre œuf.

Le produit chimique atomique d'azote était le troisième étudiant sélectionné
enquête, car il semblait relativement calme contrairement à
oxygène constamment excité. Cependant, cela s'est avéré être le plus compliqué de tous
dans leurs arrangements internes, et le silence était donc un peu
trompeur. Le plus important était le corps en forme de ballon au milieu, med
six corps plus petits sur deux rangées horizontales et un grand ovoïde
au milieu. Certains atomes chimiques y ont été vus
la disposition interne de ces organes contenus a été modifiée et les deux
les rangées horizontales sont devenues verticales; ce changement semble être associé à un
une plus grande activité de tout le corps, mais les observations sur cette tête sont
trop incomplet pour être fiable. Le corps en forme de ballon est positif et est
apparemment tiré vers le bas vers le corps ovoïde négatif en dessous,
qui contient sept petites particules. En plus de ces grands corps, quatre
petits sont vus, deux positifs et deux négatifs, le positif contient
cinq et les taches négatives de quatre minutes. En élevant l'atome gazeux à
E 4, la paroi tombante libère les six corps contenus, et
le ballon et l'œuf rond, apparemment avec retrait
de leur affiliation, comme s'ils s'étaient formés les uns sur les autres
influence attractive. Les plus petits corps de l'oeuf – marqués q sur
E 4 – ne sont pas sur un seul niveau et sont à l'intérieur n et o forme
pyramides carrées et triangulaires respectivement. En élevant tout le monde
ces corps d'E 3 nous trouvons les murs tombent comme d'habitude, et le contenu
de chaque "cellule" est libérée:
p de E 4 contient six petits corps étiquetés k, et ceux-ci sont affichés
dans k de E 3, contenant chacun sept petits corps – marqués e-Chaque
dont deux sont des atomes ultimes; la forme longue de p
Marque E 4
l– Apparaît comme la forme longue l sur E 3 et cela a trois paires
de plus petits corps, f & # 39;, g et
hcontenant respectivement trois, quatre et six atomes ultimes;
q de E 4, avec ses sept particules contenues, m, a trois
Particules m sur E 3, montrant chacun en eux trois atomes ultimes;
e de n ou E 4 devient dans ou E 3, avec des corps confinés,
e
, montrant deux atomes ultimes dans chacun; tandis que e & # 39;
de o ou E 4 devient j ou E 3, ayant chacun trois corps plus petits
à l'intérieur, e & # 39;, avec deux atomes ultimes dans chacun. Sur E 2, le
la disposition de ces atomes ultimes est montrée, et les paires, f & # 39;,
g canard h sont vus avec les lignes de force indiquées; les triades
dans F-de m of E 3—are similarly shown, and the duads in e
and e'—from i and j
of E 3—are given in the same way. When all these bodies are raised to E 1, the
ultimate physical atoms are set free, identical, of course, with that
previously described. Reckoning up the number of ultimate physical atoms in
a chemical atom of nitrogen we find they amount to 261, thus divided:—

62 +  bodies with 2
ultimate atoms, 62 x 2 = 124
24 –    "    
"   2    "      
"    24 x 2 =  48
21 –    "    
"   3    "      
"    21 x 3 =  63
2 +    "    
"   3    "      
"     2 x 3 =   6
2 +    "    
"   4    "      
"     2 x 4 =   8
2 +    "    
"   4    "      
"     2 x 6 =  12

—-

261

This again approaches closely the weight-number assigned to nitrogen:—

This is interesting as checking the observations, for weight-numbers are
arrived at in so very different a fashion, and especially in the case of
nitrogen the approximation is noteworthy, from the complexity of the bodies
which yield the number on analysis.

Some other observations were made which went to show that as weight-numbers
increased, there was a corresponding increase in the number of bodies
discerned within the chemical atom; thus, gold showed forty-seven contained
bodies; but these observations need repetition and checking. Investigation
of a molecule of water revealed the presence of twelve bodies from hydrogen
and the characteristic snake of oxygen, the encircling walls of the chemical
atoms being broken away. But here again, further observations are necessary
to substantiate details. The present paper is only offered as a suggestion
of an inviting line of research, promising interesting results of a
scientific character; the observations recorded have been repeated several
times and are not the work of a single investigator, and they are believed
to be correct so far as they go.

THE PLATONIC SOLIDS.

Some of our readers may be glad to have a drawing of the Platonic solids,
since they play so large a part in the building up of elements. The regular
solids are five, and five only; in each:

(1) The lines are equal.

(2) The angles are equal.

(3) The surfaces are equal.

The five Platonic solids.

It will be seen that the tetrahedron is the fundamental form, the
three-sided pyramid on a triangular base, i.e., a solid figure formed
from four triangles. Two of these generate the cube and the octahedron; five
of these generate the dodecahedron and the icosahedron.

The rhombic dodecahedron is not regular, for though the lines and surfaces
are equal, the angles are not.

NOTES.

Mr. C. Jinarâjadâsa(1)
writes:

The asterisk put before metargon in the list of elements should be omitted,
for metargon had been discovered by Sir William Ramsey and Mr. Travers at
the same time as neon (see Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol.
lxiii, p. 411), and therefore before it was observed clairvoyantly. It is
not, however, given in the latest list of elements in the Report of November
13, 1907, of the International Atomic Weights Commission, so it would seem
as though it were not yet fully recognised.

Neon was discovered in 1898 by Ramsey and Travers, and the weight given to
it was 22. This almost corresponds with our weight for meta-neon, 22.33; the
latest weight given to neon is 20, and that corresponds within one-tenth to
our weight, 19.9. From this it would seem that neon was examined in the
later investigations and meta-neon in the earlier.

He says further on a probable fourth Interperiodic Group:

Thinking over the diagrams, it seemed to me likely that a fourth group
exists, coming on the paramagnetic side, directly under iron, cobalt,
nickel, just one complete swing of the pendulum after rhodium, ruthenium,
palladium. This would make four interperiodic groups, and they would come
also periodically in the table too.

I took the diagram for Osmium, and in a bar postulated only three columns
for the first element of the new groups, i.e., one column less than
in Osmium. This would make 183 atoms in a bar; the new group then would
follow in a bar, 183, 185, 187. Here I found to my surprise that the third
postulated group would have a remarkable relation to Os, Ir, Pt.

Thus

Os.–245    
(in a bar);      less 60 = 185
Ir.  247                     
less 60 = 187
Pt.  249                     
less 60 = 189

But strange to say also

Ruthenium (bar) 132             
less 60–72
Rhodium         134             
less 60–74
Palladium       136             
less 60–76

But 72, 74, 76, are Iron, Cobalt and Nickel.

So there does probably exist a new group with bars (183), 185, 187, 189,
with atomic weights.

X=bar 185;      atoms     
2590, wt. 143.3
Y=    187,                
2618, wt. 145.4
Z=    189,                
2646, wt. 147.0.

They come probably among the rare earths. Probably also Neodymium and
Praseodymium are two of them, for their weights are 143.6, 140.5.



CHAPTER III.

THE LATER RESEARCHES.

The first difficulty that faced us was the identification of the forms seen
on focusing the sight on gases.(2) We could only proceed tentatively. Thus, a
very common form in the air had a sort of dumb-bell shape (see Plate I); we examined this, comparing our rough sketches,
and counted its atoms; these, divided by 18—the number of ultimate atoms in
hydrogen—gave us 23.22 as atomic weight, and this offered the presumption
that it was sodium. We then took various substances—common salt, etc.—in
which we knew sodium was present, and found the dumb-bell form in all. In
other cases, we took small fragments of metals, as iron, tin, zinc, silver,
gold; in others, again, pieces of ore, mineral waters, etc., etc., and, for
the rarest substances, Mr. Leadbeater visited a mineralogical museum. In
all, 57 chemical elements were examined, out of the 78 recognized by modern
chemistry.

In addition to these, we found 3 chemical waifs: an unrecognized stranger
between hydrogen and helium which we named occultum, for purposes of
reference, and 2 varieties of one element, which we named kalon and
meta-kalon, between xenon and osmium; we also found 4 varieties of 4
recognized elements and prefixed meta to the name of each, and a second form
of platinum, that we named Pt. B. Thus we have tabulated in all 65 chemical
elements, or chemical atoms, completing three of Sir William Crookes'
lemniscates, sufficient for some amount of generalization.

Plate I. Sodium.
Plate I. Sodium.

In counting the number of ultimate atoms in a chemical elemental atom, we
did not count them throughout, one by one; when, for instance, we counted up
the ultimate atoms in sodium, we dictated the number in each convenient
group to Mr. Jinarâjadâsa, and he multiplied out the total, divided by 18,
and announced the result. Thus: sodium (see Plate I) is composed of
an upper part, divisible into a globe and 12 funnels; a lower part,
similarly divided; and a connecting rod. We counted the number in the upper
part: globe—10; the number in two or three of the funnels—each 16; the
number of funnels—12; the same for the lower part; in the connecting rod—14.
Mr. Jinarâjadâsa reckoned: 10 + (16 x 12) = 202; hence: 202 + 202 + 14 =
418: divided by 18 = 23.22 recurring. By this method we guarded our counting
from any prepossession, as it was impossible for us to know how the various
numbers would result on addition, multiplication and division, and the
exciting moment came when we waited to see if our results endorsed or
approached any accepted weight. In the heavier elements, such as gold, with
3546 atoms, it would have been impossible to count each atom without quite
unnecessary waste of time, when making a preliminary investigation. Later,
it may be worth while to count each division separately, as in some we
noticed that two groups, at first sight alike, differed by 1 or 2 atoms, and
some very slight errors may, in this way, have crept into our calculations.

In the following table is a list of the chemical elements examined; the
first column gives the names, the asterisk affixed to some indicating that
they have not yet been discovered by orthodox chemistry. The second column
gives the number of ultimate physical atoms contained in one chemical atom
of the element concerned. The third column gives the weight as compared with
hydrogen, taken as 18, and this is obtained by dividing the calculated
number of ultimate atoms by 18. The fourth column gives the recognized
weight-number, mostly according to the latest list of atomic weights, the
"International List" of 1905, given in Erdmann's "Lehrbuch der Unorganischen
Chemie." These weights differ from those hitherto accepted, and are
generally lighter than those given in earlier text-books. It is interesting
to note that our counting endorses the earlier numbers, for the most part,
and we must wait to see if later observations will endorse the last results
of orthodox chemistry, or confirm ours.

——————————————–
Hydrogen       |    18  
|   1     |   1
*Occultum      |    54   |  
3     |   —
Helium         |    72  
|   4     |   3.94
Lithium        |   127  
|   7.06  |   6.98
Baryllium      |   164   |  
9.11  |   9.01
Boron          |   200  
|  11.11  |  10.86
Carbon         |   216  
|  12     |  11.91
Nitrogen       |   261   | 
14.50  |  14.01
Oxygen         |   290  
|  16.11  |  15.879
Fluorine       |   340   | 
18.88  |  18.90
Neon           |  
360   |  20     |  19.9
*Meta-Neon     |   402   |  22.33 
|   —
Sodium         |   418  
|  23.22  |  22.88
Magnesium      |   432   |  24    
|  24.18
Aluminium      |   486   |  27    
|  26.91
Silicon        |   520  
|  28.88  |  28.18
Phosphorus     |   558   |  31    
|  30.77
Sulphur        |   576  
|  32     |  31.82
Chlorine       |   639   | 
35.50  |  35.473
Potassium      |   701   | 
38.944 |  38.85
Argon          |   714  
|  39.66  |  39.60
Calcium        |   720  
|  40     |  39.74
*Metargon      |   756   |  42    
|   —
Scandium       |   792   | 
44     |  43.78
Titanium       |   864   | 
48     |  47.74
Vanadium       |   918   | 
51     |  50.84
Chromium       |   936   | 
52     |  51.74
Manganese      |   992   | 
55.11  |  54.57
Iron           |  1008  
|  56     |  55.47
Cobalt         |  1036  
|  57.55  |  57.7
Nickel         |  1064  
|  59.ll  |  58.30
Copper         |  1139  
|  63.277 |  63.12
Zinc           |  1170  
|  65     |  64.91
Gallium        |  1260   | 
70     |  69.50
Germanium      |  1300   |  72.22 
|  71.93
Arsenic        |  1350   | 
75     |  74.45
Selenium       |  1422   |  79    
|  78.58
Bromine        |  1439   | 
79.944 |  79.953
Krypton        |  1464   | 
81.33  |  81.20
*Meta-Krypton  |  1506   |  83.66  |  

Rubidium       |  1530   |  85    
|  84.85
Strontium      |  1568   |  87.11 
|  86.95
Yttrium        |  1606   | 
89.22  |  88.34
Zirconium      |  1624   |  90.22 
|  89.85
Niobium        |  1719   | 
95.50  |  93.25
Molybdenum     |  1746   |  97    
|  95.26
Ruthenium      |  1848   | 102.66 
| 100.91
Rhodium        |  1876   |
104.22  | 102.23
Palladium      |  1904   | 105.77 
| 105.74
Silver         |  1945  
| 108.055 | 107.93
Cadmium        |  2016   | 112    
| 111.60
Indium         |  2052  
| 114     | 114.05
Tin            | 
2124   | 118     | 118.10
Antimony       |  2169   | 120.50 
| 119.34
Tellurium      |  2223   | 123.50 
| 126.64
Iodine         |  2287  
| 127.055 | 126.01
Xenon          |  2298  
| 127.66  | 127.10
*Meta-Xenon    |  2340   | 130    
|   —
*Kalon         |  3054  
| 169.66  |   —
*Meta-Kalon    |  3096   | 172    
|   —
Osmium         |  3430  
| 190.55  | 189.55
Iridium        |  3458   |
192.11  | 191.56
Platinum A     |  3486   | 193.66  |
193.34
*Platinum B    |  3514   | 195.22  |  

Gold           |  3546  
| 197     | 195.74
——————————————–

Plate II - Ultimate physical atoms.
PLATE II. MALE (left) and FEMALE (right).

As the words "ultimate physical atom" must frequently occur, it is necessary
to state what we mean by the phrase. Any gaseous chemical atom may be
dissociated into less complicated bodies; these, again, into still less
complicated; these, again, into yet still less complicated. These will be
dealt with presently. After the third dissociation but one more is possible;
the fourth dissociation gives the ultimate physical atom.(3) This may vanish from the physical
plane, but it can undergo no further dissociation on it. In this ultimate
state of physical matter two types of atoms have been observed; they are
alike in everything save the direction of their whorls and of the force
which pours through them. In the one case force pours in from the "outside,"
from fourth-dimensional space,(4) and passing through the atom, pours into the
physical world. In the second, it pours in from the physical world, and out
through the atom into the "outside" again,(4) i.e., vanishes from the physical world.
The one is like a spring, from which water bubbles out; the other is like a
hole, into which water disappears. We call the atoms from which force comes
out positive or male; those through which it disappears,
negative
or female. All atoms, so far as observed, are of one or
other of these two forms. (Plate II.)

It will be seen that the atom is a sphere, slightly flattened, and there is
a depression at the point where the force flows in, causing a heart-like
form. Each atom is surrounded by a field, formed of the atoms of the four
higher planes, which surround and interpenetrate it.

The atom can scarcely be said to be a "thing," though it is the material out
of which all things physical are composed. It is formed by the flow of the
life-force(5)
and vanishes with its ebb. When this force arises in "space"(6)—the apparent void which must be
filled with substance of some kind, of inconceivable tenuity—atoms appear;
if this be artificially stopped for a single atom, the atom disappears;
there is nothing left. Presumably, were that flow checked but for an
instant, the whole physical world would vanish, as a cloud melts away in the
empyrean. It is only the persistence of that flow(7)
which maintains the physical basis of the universe.(8)

In order to examine the construction of the atom, a space is artificially
made(9); then, if an opening be
made in the wall thus constructed, the surrounding force flows in, and three
whorls immediately appear, surrounding the "hole" with their triple spiral
of two and a half coils, and returning to their origin by a spiral within
the atom; these are at once followed by seven finer whorls, which following
the spiral of the first three on the outer surface, and returning to their
origin by a spiral within that, flowing in the opposite direction—form a
caduceus with the first three. Each of the three coarser whorls, flattened
out, makes a closed circle; each of the seven finer ones, similarly
flattened out, makes a closed circle. The forces which flow in them, again,
come from "outside," from a fourth-dimensional space.(10) Each of the finer whorls is formed of seven
yet finer ones, set successively at right angles to each other, each finer
than its predecessor; these we call spirillæ.(11)

It will be understood from the foregoing, that the atom cannot be said to
have a wall of its own, unless these whorls of force can be so designated;
its "wall" is the pressed back "space." As said in 1895, of the chemical
atom, the force "clears itself a space, pressing back the undifferentiated
matter of the plane, and making to itself a whirling wall of this matter."
The wall belongs to space, not to the atom.

In the three whorls flow currents of different electricities; the seven
vibrate in response to etheric waves of all kinds—to sound, light, heat,
etc.; they show the seven colours of the spectrum; give out the seven sounds
of the natural scale; respond in a variety of ways to physical
vibration—flashing, singing, pulsing bodies, they move incessantly,
inconceivably beautiful and brilliant.(12)

The atom has—as observed so far—three proper motions,
i.e., motions of its own, independent of any imposed upon it from
outside. It turns incessantly upon its own axis, spinning like a top; it
describes a small circle with its axis, as though the axis of the spinning
top moved in a small circle; it has a regular pulsation, a contraction and
expansion, like the pulsation of the heart. When a force is brought to bear
upon it, it dances up and down, flings itself wildly from side to side,
performs the most astonishing and rapid gyrations, but the three fundamental
motions incessantly persist. If it be made to vibrate, as a whole, at the
rate which gives any one of the seven colors, the whorl belonging to that
color glows out brilliantly.

Arrangement of atoms in an electric current.

An electric current brought to bear upon the atoms checks their proper
motions, i.e., renders them slower; the atoms exposed to it arrange
themselves in parallel lines, and in each line the heart-shaped depression
receives the flow, which passes out through the apex into the depression of
the next, and so on. The atoms always set themselves to the current. The
well-known division of diamagnetic and paramagnetic depends generally on
this fact, or on an analogous action on molecules, as may be seen in the
accompanying diagrams.(13)

Two atoms, positive and negative, brought near to each other, attract each
other, and then commence to revolve round each other, forming a relatively
stable duality; such a molecule is neutral. Combinations of three or more
atoms are positive, negative or neutral, according to the internal molecular
arrangement; the neutral are relatively stable, the positive and negative
are continually in search of their respective opposites, with a view to
establishing a relatively permanent union.

Three states of matter exist between the atomic state and the gaseous—the
state in which the chemical atoms are found, the recognized chemical
elements; for our purposes we may ignore the liquid and solid states. For
the sake of clearness and brevity in description, we have been obliged to
name these states; we call the atomic state of the chemist elemental;
the state which results from breaking up chemical elements,
proto-elemental
; the next higher,
meta-proto-elemental; the next higher,
hyper-meta-proto-elemental; then comes the atomic state. These are
briefly marked as El., Proto., Meta., and Hyper.(14)

The simplest unions of atoms, never, apparently consisting of more than
seven, form the first molecular state of physical matter.

Types of Hyper-Meta-Proto-Elemental Matter.
Types of Hyper-Meta-Proto-Elemental Matter.

Here are some characteristic combinations of the Hyper state; the atom is
conventional, with the depression emphasised; the lines, always entering at
the depression and coming out at the apex, show the resultants of lines of
force; where no line appears entering the depression, the force wells up
from fourth-dimensional space; where no line appears leaving the apex, the
force disappears into fourth-dimensional space; where the point of entry and
departure is outside the atoms, it is indicated by a dot.(15)

The molecules show all kinds of possible combinations; the combinations
spin, turn head over heels, and gyrate in endless ways. Each aggregation is
surrounded with an apparent cell-wall, the circle or oval, due to the
pressure on the surrounding matter caused by its whirling motion; they
strike on each other(16) and rebound, dart hither and thither, for
reasons we have not distinguished.

Types of Meta-Proto-Elemental Matter
Types of Meta-Proto-Elemental Matter.

The Meta state, in some of its combinations, appears at first sight to
repeat those of the Hyper state; the only obvious way of distinguishing to
which some of the molecules of less complexity belong is to pull them out of
the "cell-wall"; if they are Hyper molecules they at once fly off as
separate atoms; if they are Meta molecules they break up into two or more
molecules containing a smaller number of atoms. Thus one of the Meta
molecules of iron, containing seven atoms, is identical in appearance with a
Hyper heptad, but the latter dissociates into seven atoms, the former into
two triads and a single atom. Long-continued research into the detailed play
of forces and their results is necessary; we are here only able to give
preliminary facts and details—are opening up the way. The following may
serve as characteristic Meta types:—

These are taken from constituents of the various elements; 1 from Gl; 2 and
3 from Fe; 4 from Bo; 5, 6 and 7 from C; 8 from He; 9 from Fl; 10, 11, 12
from Li; 13 and 14 from Na. Others will be seen in the course of breaking up
the elements.

The Proto state preserves many of the forms in the elements, modified by
release from the pressure to which they are subjected in the chemical atom.
In this state various groups are thus recognizable which are characteristic
of allied metals.

Types of Proto-Elemental Matter
Types of Proto-Elemental Matter.

These are taken from the products of the first disintegration of the
chemical atom, by forcibly removing it from its hole. The groups fly apart,
assuming a great variety of forms often more or less geometrical; the lines
between the constituents of the groups, where indicated, no longer represent
lines of force, but are intended to represent the impression of form,
i.e.
, of the relative position and motion of the constituents, made on
the mind of the observer. They are elusive, for there are no lines, but the
appearance of lines is caused by the rapid motion of the costituents up and
down, or along them backwards and forwards. The dots represent atoms, or
groups of atoms, within the proto-elements. 1 is found in C; 2 and 3 in He;
4 in Fl; 5 in Li; 6 in N; 7 in Ru; 8 in Na; 9 and 10 in Co; 11 in Fe; 12 in
Se. We shall return to these when analysing the elements, and shall meet
many other proto-elemental groupings.

The first thing which is noticed by the observer, when he turns his
attention to the chemical atoms, is that they show certain definite forms,
and that within these forms, modified in various ways, sub-groupings are
observable which recur in connexion with the same modified form. The main
types are not very numerous, and we found that, when we arranged the atoms
we had observed, according to their external forms, they fell into natural
classes; when these, in turn, were compared with Sir William Crookes'
classification, they proved to be singularly alike. Here is his arrangement
of the elements, as it appeared in the
Proceedings of the Royal Society, in a paper read on June 9th, 1898.

Sir William Crookes' classification.

This is to be read, following the lines of the "figures of eight": H, He,
Li, Gl, B, C, N, and so on, each successive element being heavier than the
one preceding it in order. The disks which fall immediately below each other
form a class; thus: H, Cl, Br, I; these resemble each other in various ways,
and, as we shall presently see, the same forms and groupings re-appear.

Another chart—taken from Erdmann's
Lehrbuch—arranges the elements on a curved line, which curiously
resembles the curves within the shell of a nautilus. The radiating lines
show the classes, the whole diameter building up a family; it will be
observed that there is an empty radius between hydrogen and helium, and we
have placed occultum there; on the opposite radius, iron, rubidium and
osmium are seen.

Chart taken from Erdmann's Lehrbuch.

The external forms may be classified as follows; the internal details will
be dealt with later :—

Plate III.
Plate III.

1. The Dumb-bell.—The characteristics of this are a higher and lower
group, each showing 12 projecting funnels, grouped round a central body, and
a connecting rod. It appears in sodium, copper, silver, and gold,(17)
and gold is given (1 on Plate III) as the most
extremely modified example of this form. The 12 almond-like projections,
above and below, are severally contained in shadowy funnels, impossible to
reproduce in the drawing; the central globe contains three globes, and the
connecting portion has swollen out into an egg, with a very complicated
central arrangement. The dumb-bell appears also in chlorine, bromine and
iodine, but there is no trace of it in hydrogen, the head of the group. We
have not met it elsewhere. It may be remarked that, in Sir William Crookes'
scheme, in which they are all classed as monads, these two groups are the
nearest to the neutral line, on the ingoing and outgoing series, and are
respectively positive and negative.

II and IIa. The Tetrahedron.—The characteristics of this form
are four funnels, containing ovoid bodies, opening on the face of a
tetrahedron. The funnels generally, but not always, radiate from a central
globe. We give beryllium (glucinum) as the simplest example (2 on
Plate III
), and to this group belong calcium and strontium. The
tetrahedron is the form of chromium and molybdenum, but not that of the head
of their group, oxygen, which is, like hydrogen, sui generis. These
two groups are marked in orthodox chemistry as respectively positive and
negative, and are closely allied. Another pair of groups show the same
tetrahedral form: magnesium, zinc and cadmium, positive; sulphur, selenium
and tellurium, negative. Selenium is a peculiarly beautiful element, with a
star floating across the mouth of each funnel; this star is extremely
sensitive to light, and its rays tremble violently and bend if a beam of
light falls on it. All these are dyads.

The tetrahedron is not confined to the external form of the above atoms; it
seems to be one of the favourite forms of nature, and repeatedly appears in
the internal arrangements. There is one tetrahedron within the unknown
element occultum; two appear in helium (3 on Plate III); yttrium has also two within its cube, as has
germanium; five, intersecting, are found in neon, meta-neon, argon,
metargon, krypton, meta-krypton, xenon, meta-xenon, kalon, meta-kalon, tin,
titanium and zirconium. Gold contains no less than twenty tetrahedra.

III. The Cube.—The cube appears to be the form of triads. It has six
funnels, containing ovoids, and opening on the faces of the cube. Boron is
chosen as an example (4 on Plate III). Its group
members, scandium and yttrium, have the same form; we have not examined the
fourth; the group is positive. Its negative complement consists of nitrogen,
vanadium and niobium, and we have again to note that nitrogen, like hydrogen
and oxygen, departs from its group type. Two other triad groups, the
positive aluminium, gallium and indium (the fourth unexamined) and the
negative phosphorus, arsenic and antimony (the fourth unexamined), have also
six funnels opening on the faces of a cube.

IV. The Octahedron.—The simplest example of this is carbon (5 on
Plate III
). We have again the funnel with its ovoids, but now there are
eight funnels opening on the eight faces of the octahedron. In titanium (6
on Plate III) the form is masked by the protruding
arms, which give the appearance of the old Rosicrucian Cross and Rose, but
when we look into the details later, the carbon type comes out clearly.
Zirconium is exactly like titanium in form, but contains a large number of
atoms. We did not examine the remaining two members of this group. The group
is tetratomic and positive. Its negative pendant shows the same form in
silicon, germanium and tin; again, the fourth was unexamined.

Plate IV.
Plate IV.

V. The Bars.—These characterise a set of closely allied groups,
termed "inter-periodic." Fourteen bars (or seven crossed) radiate from a
centre, as in iron (1 on Plate IV), and the members of each group—iron,
nickel, cobalt; ruthenium, rhodium, palladium; osmium, iridium,
platinum—differ from each other by the weight of each bar, increasing in
orderly succession; the details will be given later. Manganese is often
grouped with iron, nickel, and cobalt (see
Crookes' lemniscates), but its fourteen protruding bodies repeat the "lithium
spike" (proto-element 5) and are grouped round a central ovoid. This would
appear to connect it with lithium (2 on Plate IV) rather than with fluorine
(3 in Plate IV), with which it is often classed. The "lithium spike"
re-appears in potassium and rubidium. These details, again, will come out
more clearly later.

VI. The Star.—A flat star, with five interpenetrating tetrahedra in
the centre, is the characteristic of neon and its allies (4 on Plate IV)
leaving apart helium, which, as may be seen by referring to 3, Plate IV, has
an entirely different form.

There are thus six clearly defined forms, typical of classes, with
two—lithium and fluorine—of doubtful affinities. It is worthy of notice that
in diatomic elements four funnels open on the faces of tetrahedra; in
triatomic, six funnels on the faces of cubes; in tetratomic, eight
funnels on the faces of octahedra.

Thus we have a regular sequence of the platonic solids, and the question
suggests itself, will further evolution develop elements shaped to the
dodecahedron and the icosahedron?



II.

We now pass from the consideration of the outer forms of the chemical
elements to a study of their internal structure, the arrangement within the
element of more or less complicated groups—proto-elements—capable of
separate, independent existence; these, once more, may be dissociated into
yet simpler groups—hyper-meta-proto-elements—equally capable of separate,
independent existence, and resolvable into single ultimate physical atoms,
the irreducible substratum of the physical world (see
Theosophist, 1908, pp. 354-356).(18)

We shall have to study the general internal structure, and then the breaking
up of each element, and the admirable diagrams, patiently worked out by Mr.
Jinarâjadâsa, will make the study comparatively easy to carry on.

The diagrams, of course, can only give a very general idea of the facts they
represent; they give groupings and show relations, but much effort of the
imagination is needed to transform the two-dimensional diagram into the
three-dimensional object. The wise student will try to visualize the figure
from the diagram. Thus the two triangles of hydrogen are not in one plane;
the circles are spheres, and the atoms within them, while preserving to each
other their relative positions, are in swift movement in three-dimensional
space. Where five atoms are seen, as in bromine and iodine, they are
generally arranged with the central atom above the four, and their motion
indicates lines which erect four plane triangles—meeting at their apices—on
a square base, forming a square-based four-sided pyramid. Each dot
represents a single ultimate atom. The enclosing lines indicate the
impression of form made on the observer, and the groupings of the atoms; the
groups will divide along these lines, when the element is broken up, so that
the lines have significance, but they do not exist as stable walls or
enclosing films, but rather mark limits, not lines, of vibrations. It should
be noted that it is not possible to show five of the prisms in the five
intersecting tetrahedra of prisms, and 30 atoms must, therefore, be added in
counting.

The diagrams are not drawn to scale, as such drawing would be impossible;
the dot representing the atom is enormously too large compared with the
enclosures, which are absurdly too small; a scale drawing would mean an
almost invisible dot on a sheet of many yards square.

The use of the words "positive" and "negative" needs to be guarded by the
following paragraphs from the article on "Chemistry" in the
Encyclopædia Britannica. We use the words in their ordinary text-book
meaning, and have not, so far, detected any characteristics whereby an
element can be declared, at sight, to be either positive or negative:—

"When binary compounds, or compounds of two elements, are decomposed by an
electric current, the two elements make their appearance at opposite poles.
These elements which are disengaged at the negative pole are termed
electro-positive or positive or basylous elements, while those disengaged at
the positive pole are termed electro-negative or negative or chlorous
elements. But the difference between these two classes of elements is one of
degree only, and they gradually merge into each other; moreover the electric
relations of elements are not absolute, but vary according to the state of
combination in which they exist, so that it is just as impossible to divide
the elements into two classes according to this property as it is to
separate them into two distinct classes of metals and non-metals."

We follow here the grouping according to external forms, and the student
should compare it with the groups marked in the lemniscate arrangement shown
in Article II (p. 377, properly p. 437, February), reading the group by the
disks that fall below each other; thus the first group is H, Cl, Br, I
(hydrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine) and a blank for an undiscovered
element. The elements grow denser in descending order; thus hydrogen is an
invisible gas; chlorine a denser gas visible by its colour; bromine is a
liquid; iodine is a solid—all, of course, when temperature and pressure are
normal. By the lowering of temperature and the increase of pressure, an
element which is normally gaseous becomes a liquid, and then a solid. Solid,
liquid, gaseous, are three interchangeable states of matter, and an element
does not alter its constitution by changing its state. So far as a chemical
"atom" is concerned, it matters not whether it be drawn for investigation
from a solid, a liquid, or a gas; but the internal arrangements of the
"atoms" become much more complicated as they become denser and denser, as is
seen by the complex arrangements necessitated by the presence of the 3546
ultimate atoms contained in the chemical "atom" of gold, as compared with
the simple arrangement of the 18 ultimate atoms of hydrogen.

According to the lemniscate arrangement, we should commence with hydrogen as
the head of the first negative group, but as it differs wholly from those
placed with it, it is better to take it by itself. Hydrogen is the lightest
of the known elements, and is therefore taken as 1 in ordinary chemistry,
and all atomic weights are multiples of this. We take it as 18, because it
contains eighteen ultimate atoms, the smallest number we have found in a
chemical element. So our "number-weights" are obtained by dividing the total
number of atoms in an element by 18 (see p. 349, January).

Plate V.
Plate V.

Hydrogen (Plate V, 1).—Hydrogen not only stands apart
from its reputed group by not having the characteristic
dumb-bell shape, well shown in sodium (Plate
I
, opposite p. 349, January), but it also stands apart
in being positive, serving as a base, not as a chlorous, or
acid, radical, thus "playing the part of a metal," as in
hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid), hydrogen sulphate
(sulphuric acid), etc.

It is most curious that hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, the most widely
spread gases, all differ fundamentally in form from the groups they
reputedly head.(19)
Hydrogen was the first chemical element examined by us, nearly thirteen years
ago, and I reproduce here the substance of what I wrote in November, 1895,
for we have nothing to add to nor amend in it.

Hydrogen consists of six small bodies, contained in an egg-like form (the
outer forms are not given in the diagrams). The six little bodies are
arranged in two sets of three, forming two triangles which are not
interchangeable, but are related to each other as object and image. The six
bodies are not all alike; they each contain three ultimate physical atoms,
but in four of the bodies the three atoms are arranged in a triangle, and in
the remaining two in a line.

HYDROGEN: 6 bodies of 3           
18
Atomic weight            
1
Number weight 18/18      
1

I.—The Dumb-bell Group.

I a.—This group consists of Cl, Br, and I (chlorine, bromine and
iodine); they are monads, diamagnetic and negative.

Chlorine (Plate V, 2).—As already
said, the general form is that of the dumb-bell, the
lower and upper parts each consisting of twelve funnels,
six sloping upwards and six downwards, the funnels
radiating outwards from a central globe, and these two
parts being united by a connecting rod (see, again,
sodium,
Plate I).

The funnel (shown flat as an isosceles triangle, standing on its apex) is a
somewhat complicated structure, of the same type as that in sodium (Plate
VI, 2
), the difference consisting in the addition of one more globe,
containing nine additional atoms. The central globe is the same as in
sodium, but the connecting rod differs. We have here a regular arrangement
of five globes, containing three, four, five, four, three atoms
respectively, whereas sodium has only three bodies, containing four, six,
four. But copper and silver, its congeners, have their connecting rods of
exactly the same pattern as the chlorine rod, and the chlorine rod reappears
in both bromine and iodine. These close similarities point to some real
relation between these groups of elements, which are placed, in the
lemniscates, equi-distant from the central line, though one is on the swing
which is going towards that line and the other is on the swing away from it.

CHLORINE: Upper part {12 funnels of 25 atoms  300

{Central globe           
10
Lower part same                    
310
Connecting rod                      
19

—-

Total             
639

—-
Atomic weight                    
35.473
Number weight 639/18             
35.50

(The Atomic Weights are mostly from Erdmann, and the Number Weights are
those ascertained by us by counting the atoms as described on p. 349,
January, and dividing by 18. Prof. T.W. Richards, in Nature, July 18,
1907, gives 35.473.)

Bromine (Plate V, 3).—In bromine,
each funnel has three additional bodies, ovoid in
shape, an addition of 33 atoms being thus made
without any disturbance of form; two pairs of atoms
are added to the central globe, and a rearrangement
of the atoms is effected by drawing together and
lessening the swing of the pair of triplets, thus
making symmetrical room for the newcomers. The
connecting rod remains unchanged. The total number
of atoms is thus raised from the 639 of chlorine to
1439. Over and over again, in these investigations,
were we reminded of Tyndall's fascinating
description of crystal building, and his fancy of
the tiny, ingenious builders busied therein. Truly
are there such builders, and the ingenuity and
effectiveness of their devices are delightful to
see.(20)

BROMINE:  Upper part {12 funnels of 58 atoms   696

{Central globe            
14
Lower part same                     
710
Connecting rod                       
19

—-

Total             
1439

—-
Atomic weight                     
79.953
Number weight 1459/18             
79.944

Iodine (Plate V, 4).—We find
herein that the central globe gains 4 atoms, the
two pairs becoming 2 quartets; the connecting
rod exactly reproduces the rods of chlorine and
bromine; the funnel is also that of bromine,
except that five bodies, containing 35 atoms,
are added to it. The 1439 atoms of bromine are
thus raised to 2887.

IODINE:   Upper Part {12 funnels of 90 atoms  1116

{Central globe            
18
Lower part same                    
1134
Connecting rod                       
19

—-

Total             
2287

—-
Atomic weight                    
126.01
Number weight 
2287/18           
127.055

The plan underlying the building up of groups is here clearly shown; a
figure is built up on a certain plan, in this case a dumb-bell; in the
succeeding members of the group additional atoms are symmetrically
introduced, modifying the appearance, but following the general idea; in
this case the connecting rod remains unaltered, while the two ends become
larger and larger, more and more overshadowing it, and causing it to become
shorter and thicker. Thus a group is gradually formed by additional
symmetrical additions. In the undiscovered remaining member of the group we
may suppose that the rod will have become still more egg-like, as in the
case of gold.

I b.—The corresponding positive group to that which we have been
considering consists of Na, Cu, Ag, and Au (sodium, copper, silver and
gold), with an empty disk between silver and gold, showing where an element
ought to be. These four elements are monads, diamagnetic, and positive, and
they show the dumb-bell arrangement, although it is much modified in gold;
we may presume that the undiscovered element between silver and gold would
form a link between them.

Plate VI.
Plate VI.

Sodium (Plate VI, 2) has been already described (p. 349,
January), as a type of the group, so we need
only refer to its internal arrangement in
order to note that it is the simplest of the
dumb-bell group. Its twelve funnels show
only four enclosed bodies, the same as we
see in chlorine, bromine, iodine, copper and
silver, and which is very little modified in
gold. Its central globe is the simplest of
all, as is its connecting rod. We may
therefore take it that sodium is the
ground-plan of the whole group.

SODIUM:   Upper part
{
12 funnels of 16 each    192
{
Central globe            
10
Lower part same               
202
Connecting rod                 
14

—-

Total             
418

—-
Atomic weight               
23.88
Number weight 418/19        
23.22

Copper (Plate VI, 3) introduces
an addition in the funnel, that we shall
find elsewhere, e.g., in silver,
gold, iron, platinum, zinc, tin, the
triangular arrangement near the mouth of
the funnel and adds to the ten atoms in
this nineteen more in three additional
enclosed bodies, thus raising the number
of atoms in a funnel from the sixteen of
sodium to forty-five. The number in the
central globe is doubled, and we meet
for the first time the peculiar cigar or
prism-shaped six-atomed arrangement,
that is one of the most common of atomic
groups. It ought to imply some definite
quality, with its continual recurrence.
The central column is the three, four,
five, four, three, arrangement already
noted.

COPPER:   Upper part {12 funnels of 45 atoms  540

{Central globe           
20
Lower part same                    
560
Connecting rod                      
19

—-

Total            
1139

—-
Atomic weight                    
63.12
Number weight 1139/18            
63.277

Silver (Plate VI, 4) follows
copper in the constitution of five
of the bodies enclosed in the
funnels. But the triangular group
contains twenty-one atoms as against
ten, and three ovoids, each
containing three bodies with eleven
atoms, raise the number of atoms in
a funnel to seventy-nine. The
central globe is decreased by five,
and the prisms have disappeared. The
connecting rod is unaltered.

SILVER:   Upper part {12 funnels of 79 atoms   948

{Central globe            
15
Lower part same                     
963
Connecting rod                       
19

—-

Total             
1945

—-
Atomic weight                    
107.93
Number weight 1945/18            
108.055

(This atomic weight is given by Stas, in Nature, August 29, 1907, but
it has been argued later that the weight should not be above 107.883.)

Plate VII.
Plate VII.

Gold (Plate VII) is so complicated that it demands a
whole plate to itself. It is
difficult to recognize the
familiar dumb-bell in this
elongated egg, but when we come
to examine it, the
characteristic groupings appear.
The egg is the enormously
swollen connecting rod, and the
upper and lower parts with their
central globes are the
almond-like projections above
and below, with the central
ovoid. Round each almond is a
shadowy funnel (not drawn in the
diagram), and within the almond
is the collection of bodies
shown in e, wherein the
two lowest bodies are the same
as in every other member of the
negative and positive groups;
the third, ascending, is a very
slight modification of the other
thirds; the fourth is a union
and re-arrangement of the fourth
and fifth; the fifth, of four
ovoids, adds one to the three
ovoids of bromine, iodine and
silver; the triangular group is
like that in copper and silver,
though with 28 atoms instead of
10 or 21, and it may be noted
that the cone in iron has also
28. The central body in the
ovoid is very complicated, and
is shown in c, the bodies
on each side, d, are each
made up of two tetrahedra, one
with four six-atomed prisms at
its angles, and the other with
four spheres, a pair with four
atoms and a pair with three. We
then come to the connecting rod.
One of the four similar groups
in the centre is enlarged in
a
, and one of the sixteen
circling groups is enlarged in
b
. These groups are arranged
in two planes inclined to one
another.

GOLD: Upper part
{ 12 funnels of 97 atoms     
1164
{ Central ovoid {c
101

{2 d, 38        76
Lower part same                  
1341
Connecting rod 4 a 84           
336

16 b 33           
528

—-

Total            
3546

—-
Atomic weight                  
195.74
Number weight 3546/18          
197

It may be noted that the connecting rod is made up of exactly sixteen atoms
of occultum, and that sixteen such atoms contain 864 ultimate atoms, the
exact member of atoms in titanium.



III.

Occultum was observed by us in 1895, and, finding that it was so light, and
so simple in its composition, we thought that it might be helium, of which
we were unable, at the time, to obtain a sample. When, however, helium
itself came under observation in 1907, it proved to be quite different from
the object before observed, so we dubbed the unrecognised object Occultum,
until orthodox science shall find it and label it in proper fashion.

Occultum (Plate VI, 1).

We here meet the tetrahedron for the first time, with each angle occupied by
a six-atomed group, the atoms arranged as on the end triangles of a prism.
This form recurs very often, and was noted, last month, as seen in copper (Plate
VI
, 3); it revolves with extreme rapidity around its longitudinal axis,
and looks like a pencil sharpened at both ends, or a cigar tapering at both
ends; we habitually spoke of it as "the cigar." It appears to be strongly
coherent, for, as will be seen below, its six atoms remain attached to each
other as meta-compounds and even when divided into two triplets as
hyper-compounds, they revolve round each other.

Above the tetrahedron is a balloon-shaped figure, apparently drawn into
shape by the attraction of the tetrahedron. The body below the tetrahedron
looks like a coil of rope, and contains fifteen atoms; they are arranged on
a slanting disk in a flat ring, and the force goes in at the top of one
atom, and out of the bottom of it into the top of the next, and so on,
making a closed circuit. The two little spheres, each containing a triplet,
are like fill-up paragraphs to a compositor—they seem to be kept standing
and popped in where wanted. The sphere marked X is a proto-compound,
the balloon when set free.

As was noted under gold (p. 41), sixteen occultum
bodies, re-arranged, make up the connecting rod in gold:—

OCCULTUM: Tetrahedron                 
24
Balloon                      
9
Triplets                     
6
Rope-circle                 
15

—-

Total             54

—-
Atomic weight        
Not known
Number weight 54/18          
3

Dissociation of Atoms.

Before proceeding to the study of other chemical atoms, as to their general
internal arrangements, it is desirable to follow out, in those already
shown, the way in which these atoms break up into simpler forms, yielding
successively what we have called proto-, meta-, and hyper-compounds. It is
naturally easier to follow these in the simpler atoms than in the more
complex, and if the earlier dissociations are shown, the latter can be more
readily and more intelligibly described.

The first thing that happens on removing a gaseous atom from its "hole" (see
pp. 21 to 23) or encircling "wall," is that the contained bodies are set
free, and, evidently released from tremendous pressure, assume spherical or
ovoid forms, the atoms within each re-arranging themselves, more or less,
within the new "hole" or "wall." The figures are, of course,
three-dimensional, and often remind one of crystals; tetrahedral, octagonal,
and other like forms being of constant occurrence. In the diagrams of the
proto-compounds, the constituent atoms are shown by dots. In the diagrams of
the meta-compounds the dot becomes a heart, in order to show the resultants
of the lines of force. In the diagrams of the hyper-compounds the same plan
is followed. The letters
a, b, c, &c., enable the student to follow the breaking
up of each group through its successive stages.

Hydrogen (Plate V, 1).

Dissociation of Hydrogren.

The six bodies contained in the gaseous atom instantaneously re-arrange
themselves within two spheres; the two linear triplets unite with one
triangular triplet, holding to each other relative positions which, if
connected by three right lines, would form a triangle with a triplet at each
angle; the remaining three triangular triplets similarly arrange themselves
in the second sphere. These form the proto-compounds of hydrogen.

In the dissociation of these, each group breaks up into two, the two linear
triplets joining each other and setting free their triangular comrade, while
two of the triangular triplets similarly remain together, casting out the
third, so that hydrogen yields four meta-compounds.

In the hyper-condition, the connexion between the double triplets is broken,
and they become four independent groups, two like ix, in the hyper-types (p.
25
), and two remaining linear, but rearranging their internal relations;
the two remaining groups break up into two pairs and a unit.

The final dissociation sets all the atoms free.

Occultum (Plate VI, 1).

Dissociation of Occultum.

On the first dissociation of the component parts of occultum, the
tetrahedron separates as a whole, with its four "cigars," flattening itself
out within its hole, a; two "cigars" are positive and two negative,
marked respectively a and a'. The rope becomes a ring within a
sphere, b, and the two bodies d d, which are loose in
the gaseous atom, come within this ring. The balloon becomes a sphere.

On further dissociation, the "cigars" go off independently, showing two
types, and these again each divide into triplets, as meta-compounds.
B, on the meta-level, casts out the two d bodies, which become
independent triplets, and the "rope" breaks into two, a close ring of seven
atoms and a double cross of eight. These subdivide again to form
hyper-compounds, the ring yielding a quintet and a pair, and the double
cross separating into its two parts.

The balloon, c, becomes much divided, the cohesion of its parts being
slight; it forms two triplets, a pair and a unit, and these set free, on
further dissociation, no less than five separate atoms and two duads.

The two triplets of d each cast out an atom on dissociation, and form
two pairs and two units.

Sodium (Plate VI, 2).

It is convenient to consider sodium next, because it is the basic pattern on
which not only copper, silver and gold are formed, but also chlorine,
bromine and iodine.

Dissociation of Sodium.

When sodium is set free from its gaseous condition, it divides up into
thirty-one bodies—twenty-four separate funnels, four bodies derived from the
two central globes, and three from the connecting rod. The funnels become
spheres, and each contains four enclosed spheres, with more or less
complicated contents. Each central globe yields a sextet and a quartet, and
the rod sets free two quartets and a peculiarly formed sextet.

When the proto-compounds are dissociated, the funnel-sphere sets free: (1)
the contents of a, rearranged into two groups of four within a common
sphere; the sphere yields four duads as hyper-compounds; (2) the contents of
b
, which unite themselves into a quartet, yielding two duads as
hyper-compounds; and (3) the contents of the two spheres,
c, which maintain their separation as meta-compounds, and become
entirely independent, the atoms within the sphere revolving round each
other, but the spheres ceasing their revolution round a common axis, and
going off in different directions. The atoms break off from each other, and
gyrate in independent solitude as hyper-"compounds." Thus each funnel yields
finally ten hyper-bodies.

The part of the central globe, marked d, with its six atoms, whirling
round a common centre, becomes two triplets, at the meta-stage, preparing
for the complete separation of these as hyper-bodies. The second part of the
same globe, marked e, a whirling cross, with an atom at each point,
becomes a quartet in the meta-state, in which three atoms revolve round a
fourth, and in the hyper-state this central atom is set free, leaving a
triplet and a unit.

Each of the two bodies marked f, liberated from the connecting rod,
shows four atoms whirling round a common centre, exactly resembling
e in appearance; but there must be some difference of inner relations,
for, in the meta-state, they re-arrange themselves as two pairs, and divide
into two as hyper-bodies.

The body marked g is a four-sided pyramid, with two closely joined
atoms at its apex; these still cling to each in mutual revolution as a
meta-body, encircled by a ring of four, and this leads to a further
dissociation into three pairs on the hyper-level.

Chlorine (Plate V, 2).

Dissociation of Chlorine and Bromine.

The description of the funnel of sodium applies to that of chlorine, until
we come to the body nearest the mouth, the sphere containing three
additional bodies; this remains within the funnel in the first dissociation,
so that again we have twenty-four separate funnels as proto-compounds; the
central globes are the same as in sodium, and yield the same four bodies;
the connecting rod sets free five bodies, of which two are the same; we have
thus thirty-three separate bodies as the result of the dissociation of
chlorine into its proto-compounds. As all the compounds which are in sodium
break up in the same way into meta- and hyper-compounds, we need not repeat
the process here. We have only to consider the new meta- and hyper-compounds
of the highest sphere within the funnel, and the two triplets and one
quintet from the connecting rod.

The additional body within the proto-funnel is of a very simple character,
three contained triangles within the flattened sphere. On release from the
funnel, on the meta-level, the atoms rearrange themselves in a whirling set
of three triplets, and these break off from each other as hyper-compounds.
The two triplets from the connecting rod, also, are of the simplest
character and need not delay us. The five-atomed body, a four-sided pyramid
as a proto-compound, becomes a ring whirling round a centre on the meta, and
two pairs with a unit on the hyper.

Bromine (Plate V, 3).

Three additional bodies appear at the top of the funnel, which otherwise
repeats that of chlorine. The connecting rod is the same and may be
disregarded. The central globes become more complex. The additions are,
however, of very easy types, and hence are readily dealt with. Each of the
three similar ovoid bodies contains two triplets—each a triangle and a
quintet—a four-sided pyramid. These are the same, as may be seen in the
connecting rod of chlorine, and we need not repeat them. Only the globe
remains. This does not break up as a proto-compound but is merely set free,
a
and the 2 bs whirling in a plane vertical to the paper and the
two smaller bodies, cc, whirling on a plane at right angles to the
other. These two disengage themselves, forming a quartet as a meta-compound,
while a makes a whirling cross and bb a single sextet; these
further dissociate themselves into four pairs and two triplets.

Iodine (Plate V, 4).

Dissociation of Iodine and Copper.

Iodine has nothing new to give us, except five similar ovoid bodies at the
top of each funnel, and two quartets instead of two pairs in the central
globe. The ovoid bodies become spheres when the funnels are thrown off, and
a crystalline form is indicated within the sphere. The atoms are arranged in
two tetrahedra with a common apex, and the relationship is maintained in the
meta-body, a septet. The latter breaks up into two triplets and a unit on
the hyper-level. In the central globes, the a of bromine is repeated
twice instead of the pairs in
cc.

Copper (Plate VI, 3).

We have already disposed of occultum, on this plate, and of sodium, which
lies at the root of both groups. Copper, we now find, is also very largely
off our hands, as the funnel provides us with only two new types—two
spheres—each containing five atoms in a new arrangement, and the triangular
body at the mouth with its ten atoms. This triangular body, with an
increased number of atoms, reappears in various other chemical elements. The
central globes are different from any we have had before, in their internal
arrangement, but the constituents are familiar; there are two contained
spheres with four atoms each, the a in the globe of bromine (see
above) and 2 "cigars." The "cigars" may be followed under occultum (see
above). The connecting rod is as in chlorine, bromine and iodine.

The atoms in the bodies a and b are curiously arranged.
A consists of two square-based pyramids turned so as to meet at their
apices, and breaks up into two quartet rings and a duad. B
is again two four-sided pyramids, but the bases are in contact and set at
right angles to each other; the second apex is not seen, as it is directly
below the first. The pyramids separate as meta-bodies, and the atoms assume
the peculiar arrangement indicated and then break up into four pairs and two
units on the hyper level.



IV.

Silver (Plate VI, 4 and Ag below).

Silver presents us with only two new bodies, and even these are only new by
slight additions to old models. The triangular shaped body at the apex of
the funnel, containing 21 atoms, is intermediate between the similar bodies
in copper and iron. As a proto-element it becomes three triangles, joined at
their apices, in fact a tetrahedron in which no atoms are distributed on the
fourth face. The faces separate on the meta level and give three
seven-atomed figures, and each of these breaks up into two triplets and a
unit. The central globe only differs from that of bromine by the addition of
one atom, which gives the familiar four-sided pyramid with a square base as
in chlorine (see p. 46).

Gold (Plate VII and Au below).

Dissociation of Silver and Gold.

The disintegration of gold first yields forty-seven bodies on the
proto-level; the twenty-four funnels separate, and the central globes which
hold each twelve together set free their six contained globes (c,
d
), thirty bodies being thus liberated. The sixteen bodies on the
central inclined planes, marked b, break away, their central globe,
with its four contained globes, remaining unchanged. But this condition does
not last. The motion of the funnels changes and thus the funnels cease to
exist and their contents are set free, each funnel thus liberating nine
independent bodies; the sixteen b separate into two each; the four
a
liberate five each; the two c set free thirteen each; the four
d
finally liberate two each: 302 proto elements in all.

The funnel is almost that of iodine, re-arranged. Four of the first ring in
the iodine funnel are replaced by the triangular body, which becomes a
four-sided pyramid with an occupied base. The second ring of three ovoids in
iodine becomes four in gold, but the internal arrangement of each ovoid is
the same. The next two spheres in the iodine funnel coalesce into one
sphere, with similar contents, in the gold funnel. The fifth in iodine is
slightly rearranged to form the fourth in descent in gold, and the remaining
two are the same. B has been broken up under occultum (p.
628
) and can be followed there. The sixteen rings set free from the four
a
, after gyrating round the central body, now become a sphere, break up,
as in occultum (see p. 44) into a meta seven-atomed ring and an eight-atomed
double cross, and so on to the hyper level. The sphere with its two
contained bodies breaks up into eight triangles on the meta level, and each
of these, on the hyper, into a duad and a unit. The twelve septets of c
assume the form of prisms as in iodine (see p. 48) and pursue the same course, while its central body, a
four-sided pyramid with its six attendants, divides on the meta level into
six duads, revolving round a ring with a central atom as in chlorine (p.
47
), the duads going off independently on the hyper-level and the ring
breaking up as in chlorine. The "cigar" tetrahedron of d follows its
course as in occultum, and the other sets free two quartets and two triplets
on the meta level, yielding six duads and two units as hyper compounds. It
will be seen that, complex as gold is, it is composed of constituents
already familiar, and has iodine and occultum as its nearest allies.

II and IIa.—The Tetrahedral
Groups
.

II.—This group consists of beryllium (glucinum), calcium, strontium and
barium, all diatomic, paramagnetic and positive. The corresponding group
consists of oxygen, chromium, molybdenum, wolfram (tungsten) and uranium,
with a blank disk between wolfram and uranium: these are diatomic,
paramagnetic, and negative. We have not examined barium, wolfram, or
uranium.

Plate VIII - Group II.
Plate VIII.

Beryllium (Plate III, 2, and
Plate VIII, 1). In the tetrahedron four funnels are
found, the mouth of each
funnel opening on one of
its faces. The funnels
radiate from a central
globe, and each funnel
contains four ovoids
each with ten atoms
within it arranged in
three spheres. In the
accompanying diagrams
one funnel with its four
ovoids is shown and a
single ovoid with its
three spheres,
containing severally
three, four, and three
atoms, is seen at the
left-hand corner of the
plate (7 a). The
members of this group
are alike in
arrangement, differing
only in the increased
complexity of the bodies
contained in the
funnels. Beryllium, it
will be observed, is
very simple, whereas
calcium and strontium
are complicated.

BERYLLIUM: 4 funnels of 40 atoms    160
Central globe             
4

—-

Total    164

—-
Atomic weight                     
9.01
Number weight  164/18             
9.11

Calcium (Plate VIII, 2) shows
in each funnel three
contained spheres,
of which the central
one has within it
seven ovoids
identical with those
of beryllium, and
the spheres above
and below it contain
each five ovoids (7
b
) in which the
three contained
spheres have,
respectively, two,
five, and two atoms.
The central globe is
double, globe within
globe, and is
divided into eight
segments, radiating
from the centre like
an orange; the
internal part of the
segment belonging to
the inner globe has
a triangular body
within it,
containing four
atoms (7 c),
and the external
part, belonging to
the encircling
globe, shows the
familiar "cigar" (7
d
). In this way
720 atoms are packed
into the simple
beryllium type.

CALCIUM: 4 funnels of 160 atoms      640
Central globe               
80

—-

Total      720

—-
Atomic weight            
39.74
Number weight 720/18     
40.00

Strontium (Plate VIII, 3) shows
a still further
complication
within the
funnels, no less
than eight
spheres being
found within
each. Each of
the highest pair
contains four
subsidiary
spheres, with
five, seven,
seven, five
atoms,
respectively (7
e
, g,
f
). The
g groups are identical with those in gold, but difference of pressure
makes the
containing body
spherical
instead of
ovoid; similar
groups are seen
in the top ring
of the iodine
funnel, where
also the "hole"
is ovoid in
form. The second
pair of spheres
contains ten
ovoids (7 b)
identical with
those of
calcium. The
third pair
contains
fourteen ovoids
(7 a)
identical with
those of
beryllium, while
the fourth pair
repeats the
second, with the
ovoids
re-arranged. The
internal
divisions of the
double sphere of
the central
globe are the
same as in
calcium, but the
contents differ.
The "cigars" in
the external
segments are
replaced by
seven-atomed
ovoids (7 h)—the
iodine
ovoids—and the
external
segments contain
five-atomed
triangles (7
i
). Thus
1,568 atoms have
been packed into
the beryllium
type, and our
wonder is again
aroused by the
ingenuity with
which a type is
preserved while
it is adapted to
new conditions.

STRONTIUM: 4 funnels of 368 atoms       1472
Central globe                 
96

—-

Total       1568

—-
Atomic weight              
86.95
Number weight
1568/18       87.11

The corresponding group, headed by oxygen—oxygen, chromium, molybdenum,
wolfram and uranium—offers us another problem in its first member.

Oxygen (Plate VIII, 4). This
was examined
by us in
1895, and
the
description
may be
reproduced
here with a
much
improved
diagram of
its very
peculiar
constitution.
The gaseous
atom is an
ovoid body,
within which
a
spirally-coiled
snake-like
body
revolves at
a high
velocity,
five
brilliant
points of
light
shining on
the coils.
The
appearance
given in the
former
diagram will
be obtained
by placing
the five
septets on
one side on
the top of
those on the
other, so
that the ten
become in
appearance
five, and
thus
doubling the
whole, the
doubling
point
leaving
eleven duads
on each
side. The
composition
is, however,
much better
seen by
flattening
out the
whole. On
the proto
level the
two snakes
separate and
are clearly
seen.

OXYGEN: Positive snake
55 spheres of 2 atoms
  + 5 disks of 7 atoms    
145
Negative snake    
"         145

—-

Total        290

—-
Atomic weight             
15.87
Number weight 290/18      
16.11

Chromium (Plate VIII, 5)
"reverts
to the
ancestral
type,"
the
tetrahedron;
the
funnel
is
widened
by the
arrangement
of its
contents,
three
spheres
forming
its
first
ring, as
compared
with the
units in
beryllium
and
calcium,
and the
pairs in
strontium
and
molybdenum.
Two of
these
spheres
are
identical
in their
contents—two
quintets
(7 f),
a
quintet
(7 j),
and two
quintets
(7 e),
e

and f
being to
each
other as
object
and
image.
The
remaining
sphere
(7 b)
is
identical
with the
highest
in the
calcium
funnel.
The
remaining
two
spheres,
one
below
the
other,
are
identical
with the
corresponding
two
spheres
in
calcium.
The
central
globe,
as
regards
its
external
segments,
is again
identical
with
that of
calcium,
but in
the
internal
segments
a
six-atomed
triangle
(7 k)
is
substituted
for the
calcium
four-atomed
one (7
e
).

CHROMIUM: 4 funnels of 210 atoms      840
Central globe               
96

—–

Total             
936

—–
Atomic weight            
51.74
Number weight 936/18     
52.00

Molybdenum (Plate VIII, 6) very
closely
resembles
strontium,
differing
from
it
only
in
the
composition
of
the
highest
pair
of
spheres
in
the
funnels
and
in
the
presence
of a
little
sphere,
containing
two
atoms
only,
in
the
middle
of
the
central
globe.
The
topmost
spheres
contain
no
less
than
eight
subsidiary
spheres
within
each;
the
highest
of
these
(7
e
)
has
four
atoms
in
it;
the
next
three
have
four,
seven
and
four
(7
e

g

e),
respectively;
the
next
three
are
all
septets
(7
g
),
and
the
last
has
four—making
in
all
for
these
two
spheres
88
atoms,
as
against
the
48
in
corresponding
spheres
of
strontium,
making
a
difference
of
160
in
the
four
funnels.

MOLYBDENUM: 4 funnels of 408 atoms     1632
Central globe               
98

—–

Total        1730

—–
Atomic weight            
95.26
Number weight
1730/18     96.11

II a.—This group contains magnesium, zinc, cadmium, and mercury, with
an empty disk between cadmium and mercury; we did not examine mercury. All
are diatomic, diamagnetic and positive; the corresponding group consists of
sulphur, selenium and tellurium, also all diatomic and diamagnetic, but
negative. The same characteristics of four funnels opening on the faces of a
tetrahedron are found in all, but magnesium and sulphur have no central
globe, and in cadmium and tellurium the globe has become a cross.

Plate IX.
Plate IX.

Magnesium (Plate IX, 1) introduces us to a new arrangement: each group of three ovoids forms a ring, and the three rings are within a funnel; at first glance, there are three bodies in the funnel; on examination each of these is seen to consist of three, with other bodies, spheres, again within them. Apart from this, the composition is simple enough, all the ovoids being alike, and composed of a triplet, a septet and a duad.

MAGNESIUM: 4 funnels of 108 atoms     432
Atomic weight           
24.18
Number weight
432/18     24.00

Zinc (Plate IX, 2) also brings a new device: the funnel is of the same type as that of magnesium, while septets are substituted for the triplets, and 36 additional atoms are thus slipped in. Then we see four spikes, alternating with the funnels and pointing to the angles, each adding 144 atoms to the total. The spikes show the ten-atomed triangle, already met with in other metals, three very regular pillars, each with six spheres, containing two, three, four, four, three, two atoms, respectively. The supporting spheres are on the model of the central globe, but contain more atoms. Funnels and spikes alike radiate from a simple central globe, in which five contained spheres are arranged crosswise, preparing for the fully developed cross of cadmium. The ends of the cross touch the bottoms of the funnels.

ZINC: 4 funnels of 144 atoms        576
4 spikes of 144 atoms        
576
Central globe                 
18

—–

Total      1170

—–
Atomic weight           
64.91
Number weight 1170/18   
65.00

Cadmium (Plate IX, 3) has an increased complexity of funnels; the diagram shows one of the three similar segments which lie within the funnels as cylinders; each of these contains four spheres, three pillars and three ovoids, like the spike of zinc turned upside down, and the zinc ten-atomed triangle changed into three ten-atomed ovoids. The centre-piece is a new form, though prefigured in the central globe of zinc.

CADMIUM:  3 segments of 164 atoms = 492
4 funnels of 492 atoms         
1968
Central body                     
48

—–

Total        2016

—–
Atomic weight                
111.60
Number weight 2016/18        
112.00

The corresponding negative group is headed by

Plate X.
Plate X.

Sulphur (Plate X, 1), which, like magnesium, has no central globe, and consists simply of the zinc funnels, much less compressed than zinc but the same in composition.

SULPHUR: 4 funnels of 144 atoms       576
Atomic weight             
31.82
Number weight 576/18      
32.00

Selenium (Plate X, 2) is distinguished by the exquisite peculiarity, already noticed, of a quivering star, floating across the mouth of each funnel, and dancing violently when a ray of light falls upon it. It is known that the conductivity of selenium varies with the intensity of the light falling upon it, and it may be that the star is in some way connected with its conductivity. It will be seen that the star is a very complicated body, and in each of its six points the two five-atomed spheres revolve round the seven-atomed cone. The bodies in the funnels resemble those in magnesium, but a reversed image of the top one is interposed between itself and the small duad, and each pair has its own enclosure. The central globe is the same as that of zinc.

SELENIUM: 4 funnels of 198 atoms     792
4 stars of 153 atoms      
612
Central globe              
18

—–

Total      1422

—–
Atomic weight           
78.58
Number weight 1422/18   
79.00

Tellurium (Plate X, 3), it will be seen, closely resembles cadmium, and has three cylindrical segments—of which one is figured—making up the funnel. The contained bodies in the pillars run three, four, five, four, three, two, instead of starting with two; and a quartet replaces a duad in the globes above. The central cross only differs from that of cadmium in having a seven-atomed instead of a four-atomed centre. So close a similarity is striking.

TELLURIUM: 3 segments of 181 atoms = 543
4 funnels of 543
atoms          2172
Central body                     
51

—–

Total          2223

—–
Atomic weight                
126.64
Number weight
2223/18         123.50



V.

We must now consider the ways in which the members of the tetrahedral groups
break up, and as we proceed with this study we shall find how continual are
the repetitions, and how Nature, with a limited number of fundamental
methods, creates by varied combinations her infinite variety of forms.

Beryllium (Plate III, 2, and
VIII, 1).

Dissociation of Beryllium and Calcium.

Beryllium offers us four similar funnels and a central globe, and the
proto-elements consist of these five bodies, set free. The funnel, released
from pressure, assumes a spherical form, with its four ovoids spinning
within it, and the central globe remains a sphere, containing a whirling
cross. On the meta level, the ovoids are set free, and two from each funnel
are seen to be positive, two negative—sixteen bodies in all, plus the
cross, in which the resultant force-lines are changed, preparatory to its
breaking into two duads on the hyper level. On that level, the decades
disintegrate into two triplets and a quartet, the positive with the
depressions inward, the negative with the depressions outward.

Calcium (Plate VIII, 2).

The funnels, as usual, assume a spherical form on the proto level, and show,
in each case, three spheres containing ovoids. These spheres, still on the
proto level, break free from their containing funnel, as in the case of gold
(p. 49), twelve bodies being thus liberated, while the
central globe breaks up into eight segments, each of which becomes globular,
and contains within it a "cigar" and a somewhat heart-shaped body. Four
spheres, each containing seven ten-atomed ovoids, are identical with those
in beryllium, and can be followed in its diagram. Eight spheres, each
containing five nine-atomed ovoids of a different type, set free, on the
meta level, eighty duads—forty positive and forty negative—and forty
quintets, which are identical with those in chlorine. On the hyper level,
the duads become single atoms, within a sphere, and the central atom from
the quintet is also set free, one hundred and twenty in all. The remaining
four atoms of the quintet divide into two duads.

The central globe, dividing into eight, becomes eight six-atomed spheres on
the meta, the "cigar" behaving as usual, four "cigars" being positive and
four negative, and becoming dissociated into triplets; the four atoms within
the heart-shaped body appear as a tetrahedron, remain together on the meta
level, and break up into duads on the hyper.

Strontium (Plate VIII,
3).

The third member of this group repeats the a groups of beryllium and
the b groups of calcium, and they dissociate into the bodies already
described under these respectively. The two upper globes in each funnel
repeat each other, but each globe contains four smaller spheres showing
three varieties of forms. The two marked
g, which are repeated in the central globe as h, are
seven-atomed, and appear as spheres or ovoids according to pressure. They
are figured on p. 48, under iodine; e and
f are related as object and image, and we have already seen them in
copper (pp. 38 and 48); in each
case, as in copper, they unite into a ten-atomed figure; on the meta level
the pair of fours form a ring, and the remaining two atoms form a duad; i,
which repeats f, makes a ring with the fifth in the centre, as in the
five-atomed b of calcium, as shown above. There is, thus, nothing new
in strontium, but only repetitions of forms already studied.

Oxygen (Plate VIII, 4).

Dissociation of Oxygen, Chromium and Molybdenum.

The disintegration of oxygen as given in 1895 may be repeated here, and the
better presentation given on p. 54 renders it easier to
follow the process. On the proto level the two "snakes" divide; the
brilliant disks are seven-atomed, but are differently arranged, the positive
snake having the atoms arranged as in the iodine ovoids, whereas the
negative snake has them arranged as in a capital H. The snakes show the same
extraordinary activity on the proto level as on the gaseous, twisting and
writhing, darting and coiling. The body of the snake is of two-atomed beads,
positive and negative. On the meta level the snakes break into ten
fragments, each consisting of a disk, with six beads on one side and five on
the other, remaining as lively as the original snake. They shiver into their
constituent disks, and beads on the hyper level, there yielding the ten
disks, five positive and five negative, and the 110 beads, fifty-five
positive and fifty-five negative.

Chromium (Plate VIII,
5).

When we go on to chromium and molybdenum, we return to our familiar funnels
and central globes, and the secondary spheres within the funnels—quickly set
free, as before, on the proto level—give us no new combinations in their
contained spheres and ovoids. The
a of beryllium, the b of calcium and strontium, and
d of calcium, the e and f of strontium, are all there;
j
in chromium is the same as the central sphere in the
b ovoid. In the central globe, k, is a pair of triangles as in
hydrogen, consisting of only six atoms, which on the meta level revolve
round each other, and break up into two duads and two units on the hyper.

Molybdenum (Plate VIII,
6).

Molybdenum presents us with only two new forms, and these are merely
four-atomed tetrahedra, occurring in pairs as object and image. All the
other bodies have already been analysed.

II a.—We come now to the second great tetrahedral group, which though
very much complicated, is yet, for the most part, a repetition of familiar
forms.

Magnesium (Plate IX, 1).

Dissociation of Magnesium and Zinc.

We are still among tetrahedra, so have to do with four funnels, but each
funnel contains three rings, and each ring three ovoids; on the proto level
a triple dissociation takes place, for the funnels let free the rings as
large spheres, in each of which rotate three twelve-atomed ovoids, and then
the ovoids break loose from the spheres, and themselves become spherical, so
that we have finally thirty-six proto compounds from the tetrahedron. On the
meta level the contained bodies, a triplet, Mg
a, a septet, Mg b, and a duad, Mg c, are set free from
each globe, thus yielding one hundred and eight meta compounds. On the hyper
level the triplet becomes a duad and a unit; the duad becomes two units; and
the septet a triplet and a quartet.

Zinc (Plate IX, 2).

We can leave aside the funnel, for the only difference between it and the
magnesium funnel is the substitution of a second septet for the triplet, and
the septet is already shown in the magnesium diagram. We have, therefore,
only to consider the spikes, pointing to the angles of the enclosing
tetrahedron, and the central globe. These are set free on the proto level
and the spikes immediately release their contents, yielding thus thirty-two
separate bodies.

The triangular arrangement at the top of the spike is the same as occurs in
copper (b on p. 48), and can be there followed.
One of the three similar pillars is shown in the accompanying diagram under
Zn a. The compressed long oval becomes a globe, with six bodies
revolving within it in a rather peculiar way: the quartets turn round each
other in the middle; the triplets revolve round them in a slanting ellipse;
the duads do the same on an ellipse slanting at an angle with the first,
somewhat as in gold (a and
b, p. 40). The spheres within the globes at the
base of the spikes, Zn b, behave as a cross—the cross is a favourite
device in the II a groups. Finally, the central globe, Zn c,
follows the same cruciform line of disintegration.

Cadmium (Plate IX, 3).

Dissociation of Cadmium and Tellurium.

Cadmium follows very closely on the lines of zinc; the pillars of the zinc
spike are reproduced in the rings of the cadmium funnel; the globes are also
the globes of cadmium; so neither of these needs attention. We have only to
consider the three ten-atomed ovoids, which are substituted for the one
ten-atomed triangle of zinc, and the central cross. The ovoids become
spheres (Cd a, b), the contained bodies revolving within them,
a
whirling on a diameter of the sphere, cutting it in halves, as it
were, and b whirling round it at right angles; the cross also becomes
a sphere (Cd c), but the cruciform type is maintained within it by
the relative positions of the contained spheres in their revolution. The
subsequent stages are shown in the diagram.

Sulphur (Plate XI, 1).

Sulphur has nothing new, but shows only the funnels already figured in
magnesium, with the substitution of a second septet for the triplet, as in
zinc.

Selenium (Plate X, 2).

Dissociation of Selenium.

The funnel of selenium is a re-arrangement of the twelve-atomed ovoids of
magnesium and the ten-atomed ovoids of cadmium. The funnels, on
disintegrating, set free twelve groups, each containing nine spheres. On the
meta level the ten-atomed bodies are set free, and the twelve-atomed divide
into duads and decads, thus yielding seventy-two decads and thirty-six
duads; the duads, however, at once recombine into hexads, thus giving only
twelve meta elements, or eighty-four in all from the funnels. The central
globe holds together on the proto level, but yields five meta elements. The
star also at first remains a unit on the proto level, and then shoots off
into seven bodies, the centre keeping together, and the six points becoming
spheres, within which the two cones, base to base, whirl in the centre, and
the globes circle round them. On the meta level all the thirty bodies
contained in the star separate from each other, and go on their independent
ways.

Selenium offers a beautiful example of the combination of simple elements
into a most exquisite whole.

Tellurium (Plate X, 3).

Tellurium very closely resembles cadmium, and they are, therefore placed on
the same diagram. The pillars are the same as in chlorine and its congeners,
with a duad added at the base. The ten-atomed ovoid is the same as in
cadmium and follows the same course in breaking up. It would be interesting
to know why this duad remains as a duad in selenium and breaks up into a
septad and triad in the other members of the group. It may be due to the
greater pressure to which it is subjected in selenium, or there may be some
other reason. The cross in tellurium is identical with that in cadmium,
except that the centre is seven-atomed instead of four-atomed.



VI.

III and IIIa.—The Cube Groups.

We have here four groups to consider, all the members of which are triads,
and have six funnels, opening on the six faces of a cube.

III.—Boron, scandium and yttrium were examined; they are all triatomic,
paramagnetic, and positive. The corresponding group consists of nitrogen,
vanadium and niobium; they are triatomic, paramagnetic, and negative. We
have not examined the remaining members of these groups. In these two groups
nitrogen dominates, and in order to make the comparison easy the nitrogen
elements are figured on both Plate XI and
Plate XII
. It will be seen that scandium and yttrium, of the positive
group, differ only in details from vanadium and niobium, of the negative
group; the ground-plan on which they are built is the same. We noted a
similar close resemblance between the positive strontium and the negative
molybdenum.

Plate XI.
Plate XI.

Boron (Plate III, 4, and Plate XI, 1). We have here the simplest form of the cube; the funnels contain only five bodies—four six-atomed ovoids and one six-atomed "cigar." The central globe has but four five-atomed spheres. It is as simple in relation to its congeners as is beryllium to its group-members.

BORON: 6 funnels of 30 atoms    180
Central globe            
20

—-

Total  200

—-
Atomic weight         
10.86
Number weight 200/18   11.11

Scandium (Plate XI, 2). For the first time we meet funnels of different types, A and B, three of each kind; A appear to be positive and B negative, but this must be stated with reserve.

In A the boron funnel is reproduced, the "cigar" having risen above its
companion ovoids; but the most important matter to note in respect to this
funnel is our introduction to the body marked a 110. This body was
observed by us first in nitrogen, in 1895, and we gave it the name of the
"nitrogen balloon," for in nitrogen it takes the balloon form, which it also
often assumes in other gaseous elements. Here it appears as a sphere—the
form always assumed on the proto level—and it will be seen, on reference to
the detailed diagram 4
a, to be a complicated body, consisting of six fourteen-atomed globes
arranged round a long ovoid containing spheres with three, four, six, six,
four, three, atoms respectively. It will be observed that this balloon
appears in every member of these two groups, except boron.

The B funnel runs largely to triads, c and b, b
(see 4 b) having not only a triadic arrangement of spheres within its
contained globes, but each sphere has also a triplet of atoms. In
c (see 4 c) there is a triadic arrangement of spheres, but each
contains duads. B is completed by a five-atomed sphere at the top of the
funnel. It should be noted that a, b and c all are
constituents of nitrogen.

The central globe repeats that of boron, with an additional four-atomed
sphere in the middle.

SCANDIUM: 3 funnels (A) of 140 atoms   420
3    "   
(B) of 116   "     348
Centre globe                 
24

—-

Total   792

—-
Atomic weight             
43.78
Number weight 792/18      
44.00

Yttrium (Plate XI, 3). Here we have a quite new arrangement of bodies within the funnel—the funnel being of one type only. Two "cigars" whirl on their own axes in the centre near the top, while four eight-atomed globes (see 4 e) chase each other in a circle round them, spinning madly on their own axes—this axial spinning seems constant in all contained bodies—all the time. Lower down in the funnel, a similar arrangement is seen, with a globe (see 4 d)—a nitrogen element—replacing the "cigars," and six-atomed ovoids replacing the globes.

The "nitrogen balloon" occupies the third place in the funnel, now showing
its usual shape in combination, while the b globe (see 4
b) of scandium takes on a lengthened form below it.

The central globe presents us with two tetrahedra, recalling one of the
combinations in gold (see Plate VII
d), and differing from that only by the substitution of two quartets
for the two triplets in gold.

One funnel of yttrium contains exactly the same number of atoms as is
contained in a gaseous atom of nitrogen. Further, a, b, and
d are all nitrogen elements. We put on record these facts, without
trying to draw any conclusions from them. Some day, we—or others—may find
out their significance, and trace through them obscure relations.

YTTRIUM: 6 funnels of 261 atoms      1566
Central globe                
40

—-

Total   1606

—-
Atomic weight             
88.34
Number weight 1606/18     
89.22

The corresponding negative group, of nitrogen, vanadium and niobium, is
rendered particularly interesting by the fact that it is headed by nitrogen,
which—like the air, of which it forms so large a part—pervades so many of
the bodies we are studying. What is there in nitrogen which renders it so
inert as to conveniently dilute the fiery oxygen and make it breathable,
while it is so extraordinarily active in some of its compounds that it
enters into the most powerful explosives? Some chemist of the future,
perhaps, will find the secret in the arrangement of its constituent parts,
which we are able only to describe.

Plate XII.
Plate XII.

Nitrogen (Plate XII, 1) does not assume the cubical form of its relatives, but is in shape like an egg. Referring again to our 1895 investigations, I quote from them. The balloon-shaped body (see 4 a) floats in the middle of the egg, containing six small spheres in two horizontal rows, and a long ovoid in the midst; this balloon-shaped body is positive, and is drawn down towards the negative body b (see 4 b) with its seven contained spheres, each of which has nine atoms within it—three triads. Four spheres are seen, in addition to the two larger bodies; two of these (see 4 d), each containing five smaller globes, are positive, and two (see 4 c) containing four smaller globes, are negative.

NITROGEN: Balloon                        
110
Oval                            
63
2 bodies of 20 atoms            
40
2   "   
"  24   "              
48

—-

Total       261

—-
Atomic weight                
14.01
Number weight 261/18         
14.50

Vanadium (Plate XII, 2) closely follows scandium, having two types of funnels. Funnel A only differs from that of scandium by having a globe (see 4 d) inserted in the ring of four ovoids; funnel B has a six-atomed, instead of a five-atomed globe at the top, and slips a third globe containing twenty atoms (see 4 d) between the two identical with those of scandium (see 4 c). The central globe has seven atoms in its middle body instead of four. In this way does vanadium succeed in overtopping scandium by 126 atoms.

VANADIUM: 3 funnels (A) of 160 atoms      480
3    "   
(B) "  137   "        411
Central globe                   
27

—-

Total       918

—-
Atomic weight                
50.84
Number weight 918/18         
51.00

Niobium (Plate XII, 3) is as closely related to yttrium as is vanadium to scandium. The little globes that scamper round the "cigars" contain twelve atoms instead of eight (see 4 e).

The rest of the funnel is the same. In the central globe both the tetrahedra
have "cigars," and a central nine-atomed globe spins round in the centre
(see 4 f), seventeen atoms being thus added.

NIOBIUM: 6 funnels of 277 atoms        1662
Central globe                  
57

—-

Total     1719

—-
Atomic weight               
93.25
Number weight 1719/18       
95.50

III a.—Aluminium, gallium and indium were examined from this group.
They are triatomic, diamagnetic, and positive. The corresponding group
contains phosphorus, arsenic and antimony: bismuth also belongs to it, but
was not examined; they are triatomic, diamagnetic and negative. They have no
central globes.

Plate XIII.
Plate XIII.

Aluminium (Plate XIII, 1), the head of the group, is, as usual, simple. There are six similar funnels, each containing eight ovoids, below which is a globe.

ALUMINIUM: 6 funnels of 81 atoms        486
Atomic weight             
26.91
Number weight
486/18       27.00

Gallium (Plate XIII, 2) has two segments in every funnel; in the segment to the left a "cigar" balances a globe, equally six-atomed, in that of the right, and the globes to right and left are four-atomed as against three-atomed. In the next row, the smaller contained globes have six atoms as against four, and the cones have respectively seven and five. By these little additions the left-hand funnel boasts one hundred and twelve atoms as against ninety-eight.

GALLIUM: Left segment 112 atoms
Right segment 98   "  
= 210
6 funnels of 210 atoms        
1260

—-
Atomic weight                
69.50
Number weight 1260/18        
70.00

Indium (Plate XIII, 3) repeats the segments of gallium exactly, save in the substitution of a sixteen-atomed body for the seven-atomed cone of the left-hand segment, and a fourteen-atomed body for the five-atomed corresponding one in gallium. But each funnel now has three segments instead of two; three funnels out of the six contain two segments of type A and one of type B; the remaining three contain two of type B, and one of type A.

INDIUM: Segment A 121 atoms
Segment B 107   "
3 funnels of 2 A and 1 B ((242 + 107)
3)    1047
3    "   
"  2 B and 1 A ((214 + 121) 3)    1005

—-

Total      2052

—-
Atomic weight                            
114.05
Number weight 2052/18                    
114.00

The corresponding negative group, phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony, run on
very similar lines to those we have just examined.

Plate XIV.
Plate XIV.

Phosphorus (Plate XIV, 1) offers us a very curious arrangement of atoms, which will give some new forms in breaking up. Two segments are in each funnel, in fact the only two of group III a which do not show this arrangement, or a modification thereof, are aluminium and arsenic.

PHOSPHORUS: Left segment  50 atoms
Right segment
43   "



93
6 funnels of
93 atoms       558
Atomic weight            
30.77
Number weight
558/18      31.00

Arsenic (Plate XIV, 2) resembles aluminium in having eight internal sub-divisions in a funnel, and the ovoids which form the top ring are identical, save for a minute difference that in aluminium the ovoids stand the reverse way from those in arsenic. It will be noted that in the former the top and bottom triangles of atoms have the apices upwards, and the middle one has its apex downwards. In arsenic, the top and bottom ones point downwards, and the middle one upwards. Arsenic inserts sixteen spheres between the ovoids and globe shown in aluminium, and thus adds no less than one hundred and forty-four atoms to each funnel.

ARSENIC: 6 funnels of 225 atoms    1350
Atomic weight           
74.45
Number weight 1350/18   
75.00

Antimony (Plate XIV, 3) is a close copy of indium, and the arrangement of types A and B in the funnels is identical. In the middle rings of both A and B a triplet is substituted for a unit at the centre of the larger globe. In the lowest body of type A the "cigar" has vanished, and is represented by a seven-atomed crystalline form.

ANTIMONY: Segment A 128 atoms
Segment B 113 atoms
3 funnels of 2 A and 1 B ((256 + 113)3)  
1107
3   "     "  2
B and 1 A ((226 + 128)3)   1056

—-

Total      2163

—-
Atomic weight                          
119.34
Number weight                          
120.16



VII.

Boron (Plate III, 4, and Plate
XI
, 1).

Dissociation of Boron and Scandium.

The disintegration of boron is very simple: the funnels are set free and
assume the spherical form, showing a central "cigar" and four globes each
containing two triplets. The central globe is also set free with its four
quintets, and breaks at once in two. On the meta level the "cigar" breaks up
as usual, and the triplets separate. On the hyper level, the "cigar" follows
its usual course, and the triplets become duads and units. The globe forms
two quintets on the meta level, and these are resolved into triplets and
duads.

Scandium (Plate XI, 2).

In funnel A the "cigar" and the ovoids behave as in boron, but the
"balloon," a 110 (XI, 4), escapes from the
funnel as it changes to a sphere, and holds together on the proto level; on
the meta, it yields six globes each containing seven duads, and these are
all set free as duads on the hyper level; the ovoid is also set free on the
meta level becoming a sphere, and on the hyper level liberates its contained
bodies, as two triplets, two quartets and two sextets.

In funnel B there is a quintet, that behaves like those in the globe of
boron, on escaping from the funnel, in which the bodies remain on the proto
level, with the exception of b 63, which escapes. On the meta level,
c
(Plate XI, 4), c
assumes a tetrahedral form with six atoms at each point, and these hold
together as sextets on the hyper level. At the meta stage, b (Plate XI, 4 b) sets free seven nine-atomed bodies,
which become free triplets on the hyper. The central globe shows a cross at
its centre, with the four quintets whirling round it, on the proto level. On
the meta, the quintets are set free, and follow the boron type, while the
cross becomes a quartet on the meta level, and two duads on the hyper.

Yttrium (Plate XI, 3).

Dissociation of Scandium (continued) and Yttrium.

In yttrium, on the proto level, a 110 and b 63 both escape
from the funnel, and behave as in scandium. The ovoids and "cigars," set
free on the meta level, behave as in boron. The central globe breaks up as
in gold (pp. 49 and 50), four quartets being set free
instead of two quartets and two triplets. We have only to consider e
8 and d 20 (Plate XI, 4). E 8 is a
tetrahedral arrangement of duads on the meta level, set free as duads on the
hyper. D 20 is an arrangement of pairs of duads at the angles of a
square-based pyramid on the meta, and again free duads on the hyper.

Nitrogen (Plate XII, 1).

Nitrogen has nothing new to show us, all its constituents having appeared in
scandium and yttrium.

Vanadium (Plate XII, 2).

The A funnel of vanadium repeats the A funnel of scandium, with the addition
of d 20, already studied. In the B funnel scandium B is repeated,
with an addition of d 20 and a sextet for a quintet; the sextet is
the c of the "nitrogen balloon." The central globe follows boron,
save that it has a septet for its centre; this was figured in iodine (p.
48
).

Niobium (Plate XII, 3).

Niobium only differs from yttrium by the introduction of triplets for duads
in e; on the meta level we have therefore triplets, and on the hyper
each triplet yields a duad and a unit. The only other difference is in the
central globe. The tetrahedra separate as usual, but liberate eight "cigars"
instead of four with four quartets; the central body is simple, becoming
three triads at the angles of a triangle on the meta level, and three duads
and three units on the hyper.

Aluminium (Plate XIII, 1).

Dissociation of Aluminium and Gallium.

The funnels let go the globes, but the eight ovoids remain within them, so
that seven bodies are let loose on the proto level. When the ovoids are set
free at the meta stage they become spherical and a nine-atomed body is
produced, which breaks up into triangles on the hyper level. The globe
becomes a cross at the meta stage, with one atom from the duads at each arm
in addition to its own, and these form four duads on the hyper, and a unit
from the centre.

Gallium (Plate XIII, 2).

In gallium the funnel disappears on the proto level, setting free its two
contained segments, each of which forms a cylinder, thus yielding twelve
bodies on the proto level. On the meta, the three upper globes in each
left-hand segment are set free, and soon vanish, each liberating a cigar and
two septets, the quartet and triad uniting. On the hyper the quartet yields
two duads but the triangle persists. The second set of bodies divide on the
meta level, forming a sextet and a cross with a duad at each arm; these on
the hyper level divide into two triangles, four duads and a unit. The
seven-atomed cone becomes two triangles united by a single atom, and on the
meta level these form a ring round the unit; on the hyper they form three
duads and a unit.

In the right-hand segment, the same policy is followed, the four triads
becoming two sextets, while the central body adds a third to the number. The
second ring has a quartet instead of the sextet, but otherwise breaks up as
does that of the left; the quintet at the base follows that of boron.

Indium (Plate XIII, 3).

The complication of three segments of different types in each funnel does
not affect the process of breaking up, and indium needs little attention. A
is exactly the same as the left-hand funnel of gallium, save for the
substitution of a globe containing the familiar "cigar" and two square-based
pyramids. B is the same as the right-hand funnel of gallium, except that its
lowest body consists of two square-based pyramids and a tetrahedron. All
these are familiar.

Phosphorus (Plate XIV, 1).

Dissociation of Phosphorus and Antimony.

The atoms in the six similar spheres in the segments of the phosphorus
funnel are arranged on the eight angles of a cube, and the central one is
attached to all of them. On the meta level five of the nine atoms hold
together and place themselves on the angles of a square-based pyramid; the
remaining four set themselves on the angle of a tetrahedron. They yield, on
the hyper level, two triads, a duad, and a unit. The remaining bodies are
simple and familiar.

Arsenic (Plate XIV, 2).

Arsenic shows the same ovoids and globe as have already been broken up in
aluminium (see ante); the remaining sixteen
spheres form nine-atomed bodies on the meta level, all similar to those of
aluminium, thus yielding twelve positive and twelve negative; the globe also
yields a nine-atomed body, twenty-five bodies of nine.

Antimony (Plate XIV, 3).

Antimony follows closely in the track of gallium and indium, the upper ring
of spheres being identical. In the second ring, a triplet is substituted for
the unit, and this apparently throws the cross out of gear, and we have a
new eleven-atomed figure, which breaks up into a triplet and two quartets on
the hyper level. The lowest seven-atomed sphere of the three at the base is
the same as we met with in copper.



VIII.

IV.—The Octahedral Groups.

These groups are at the turns of the spiral in Sir William Crookes'
lemniscates (see p. 28). On the one side is carbon,
with below it titanium and zirconium; on the other silicon, with germanium
and tin. The characteristic form is an octahedron, rounded at the angles and
a little depressed between the faces in consequence of the rounding; in
fact, we did not, at first, recognize it as an octahedron, and we called it
the "corded bale," the nearest likeness that struck us. The members of the
group are all tetrads, and have eight funnels, opening on the eight faces of
the octahedron. The first group is paramagnetic and positive; the
corresponding one is diamagnetic and negative. The two groups are not
closely allied in composition, though both titanium and tin have in common
the five intersecting tetrahedra at their respective centres.

Plate XV.
Plate XV.

Carbon (Plate III, 5, and
XV, 1) gives us the fundamental octahedral form, which becomes so masked in titanium and zirconium. As before said (p. 30), the protrusion of the arms in these suggests the old Rosicrucian symbol of the cross and rose, but they show at their ends the eight carbon funnels with their characteristic contents, and thus justify their relationship. The funnels are in pairs, one of each pair showing three "cigars," and having as its fellow a funnel in which the middle "cigar" is truncated, thus loosing one atom. Each "cigar" has a leaf-like body at its base, and in the centre of the octahedron is a globe containing four atoms, each within its own wall; these lie on the dividing lines of the faces, and each holds a pair of the funnels together. It seems as though this atom had been economically taken from the "cigar" to form a link. This will be more clearly seen when we come to separate the parts from each other. It will be noticed that the atoms in the "leaves" at the base vary in arrangement, being alternately in a line and in a triangle.

{ left  27
CARBON: One pair of funnels { right 22

{ centre 1



54
4 pairs of funnels of 54 atoms  
216
Atomic weight                 
11.91
Number weight 216/18          
12.00

Titanium (Plate III, 6, and XV, 2) has a complete carbon atom distributed over the ends of its four arms, a pair of funnels with their linking atom being seen in each. Then, in each arm, comes the elaborate body shown as 3 c, with its eighty-eight atoms. A ring of twelve ovoids (3 d) each holding within itself fourteen atoms, distributed among three contained globes—two quartets and a sextet—is a new device for crowding in material. Lastly comes the central body (4 e) of five intersecting tetrahedra, with a "cigar" at each of their twenty points—of which only fifteen can be shown in the diagram—and a ring of seven atoms round an eighth, that forms the minute centre of the whole. Into this elaborate body one hundred and twenty-eight atoms are built.

TITANIUM: One carbon atom              
216
4 c of 88 atoms       
352
12 d of 14  "         
168
Central globe                
128

—-

Total       864

—-
Atomic weight              
47.74
Number weight 864/18       
48.00

Zirconium (Plate XV, 3) has exactly the same outline as titanium, the carbon atom is similarly distributed, and the central body is identical. Only in 5 c and d do we find a difference on comparing them with 4 c and d. The c ovoid in zirconium shows no less than fifteen secondary globes within the five contained in the ovoid, and these, in turn, contain altogether sixty-nine smaller spheres, with two hundred and twelve atoms within them, arranged in pairs, triplets, quartets, quintets, a sextet and septets. Finally, the ovoids of the ring are also made more elaborate, showing thirty-six atoms instead of fourteen. In this way the clever builders have piled up in zirconium no less than 1624 atoms.

ZIRCONIUM: One Carbon atom             
216
4 c of 212
atoms      848
12 d of 36  
"        432
Central globe               
128

—-

Total    1624

—-
Atomic weight             
89.85
Number weight             
90.22

Plate XVI.
Plate XVI.

Silicon (Plate XVI, 1) is at the head of the group which corresponds to carbon on the opposite turn of the lemniscate. It has the usual eight funnels, containing four ovoids in a circle, and a truncated "cigar" but no central body of any kind. All the funnels are alike.

SILICON: 8 funnels of 65 atoms         
520
Atomic weight               
28.18
Number weight 520/18        
28.88

Germanium (Plate XVI, 2) shows the eight funnels, containing each four segments (XVI, 4), within which are three ovoids and a "cigar." In this case the funnels radiate from a central globe, formed of two intersecting tetrahedra, with "cigars" at each point enclosing a four-atomed globe.

GERMANIUM: 8 funnels of 156 atoms     1248
Central globe               
52

—-

Total             
1300

—-
Atomic weight            
71.93
Number weight
1300/18     72.22

Tin (Plate XVI, 3) repeats the funnel of germanium, and the central globe we met with in titanium, of five intersecting tetrahedra, carrying twenty "cigars"; the latter, however, omits the eight-atomed centre of the globe that was found in titanium, and hence has one hundred and twenty atoms therein instead of one hundred and twenty-eight. Tin, to make room for the necessary increase of atoms, adopts the system of spikes, which we met with in zinc (see Plate IX, 2); these spikes, like the funnels, radiate from the central globe, but are only six in number. The twenty-one-atomed cone at the head of the spike we have already seen in silver, and we shall again find it in iridium and platinum; the pillars are new in detail though not in principle, the contained globes yielding a series of a triplet, quintet, sextet, septet, sextet, quintet, triplet.

TIN: 8 funnels of 156 atoms          
1248
6 spikes  of 126   "             
756
Central globe                    
120

—-

Total           2124

—-
Atomic weight                 
118.10
Number weight 2124/18         
118.00

V.—The Bars Groups.

Plate XVII.
Plate XVII.

Here, for the first time, we find ourselves a little at issue with the
accepted system of chemistry. Fluorine stands at the head of a group—called
the inter-periodic—whereof the remaining members are (see Crookes' table,
p. 28
), manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel; ruthenium, rhodium, palladium;
osmium, iridium, platinum. If we take all these as group V, we find that
fluorine and manganese are violently forced into company with which they
have hardly any points of relationship, and that they intrude into an
otherwise very harmonious group of closely similar composition. Moreover,
manganese reproduces the characteristic lithium "spike" and not the bars of
those into whose company it is thrust, and it is thus allied with lithium,
with which indeed it is almost identical. But lithium is placed by Crookes
at the head of a group, the other members of which are potassium, rubidium
and cæsium (the last not examined). Following these identities of
composition, I think it is better to remove manganese and fluorine from
their incongruous companions and place them with lithium and its allies as V
a
, the Spike Groups, marking, by the identity of number, similarities of
arrangement which exist, and by the separation the differences of
composition. It is worth while noting what Sir William Crookes, in his
"Genesis of the Elements," remarks on the relations of the interperiodic
group with its neighbours. He says: "These bodies are interperiodic because
their atomic weights exclude them from the small periods into which the
other elements fall, and because their chemical relations with some members
of the neighbouring groups show that they are probably interperiodic in the
sense of being in transition stages."

Group V in every case shows fourteen bars radiating from a centre as shown
in iron, Plate IV, 1. While the form remains
unchanged throughout, the increase of weight is gained by adding to the
number of atoms contained in a bar. The group is made up, not of single
chemical elements, as in all other cases, but of sub-groups, each containing
three elements, and the relations within each sub-group are very close;
moreover the weights only differ by two atoms per bar, making a weight
difference of twenty-eight in the whole. Thus we have per bar:—

Iron             72       
Palladium       136
Nickel           74       
Osmium          245
Cobalt           76       
Iridium         247
Ruthenium       132       
Platinum A      249
Rhodium         134       
Platinum B      257

It will be noticed (Plate XVII, 3, 4, 5,) that each
bar has two sections, and that the three lower sections in iron, cobalt and
nickel are identical; in the upper sections, iron has a cone of twenty-eight
atoms, while cobalt and nickel have each three ovoids, and of these the
middle ones alone differ, and that only in their upper globes, this globe
being four-atomed in cobalt and six-atomed in nickel.

The long ovoids within each bar revolve round the central axis of the bar,
remaining parallel with it, while each spins on its own axis; the iron cone
spins round as though impaled on the axis.

Iron (Plate IV, 1, and XVII, 3):

14 bars of 72 atoms           
1008
Atomic weight                
55.47
Number weight 1008/18        
56.00

Cobalt (Plate XVII, 4):

14 bars of 74 atoms           
1036
Atomic weight                
57.70
Number weight 1036/18        
57.55

Nickel (Plate XVII, 4):

14 bars of 76 atoms            
1064
Atomic weight                 
58.30
Number weight 1064/18         
59.11

(The weight of cobalt, as given in Erdmann's Lehrbuch, is 58.55, but
Messrs. Parker and Sexton, in Nature, August 1, 1907, give the
weight, as the result of their experiments, as 57.7.)

Plate XVIII.
Plate XVIII.

The next sub-group, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium, has nothing to detain
us. It will be observed that each bar contains eight segments, instead of
the six of cobalt and nickel; that ruthenium and palladium have the same
number of atoms in their upper ovoids, although in ruthenium a triplet and
quartet represent the septet of palladium; and that in ruthenium and rhodium
the lower ovoids are identical, though one has the order: sixteen, fourteen,
sixteen, fourteen; and the other: fourteen, sixteen, fourteen, sixteen. One
constantly asks oneself: What is the significance of these minute changes?
Further investigators will probably discover the answer.

Ruthenium (Plate XVIII, 1):

14 bars of 132 atoms             
1848
Atomic weight                  
100.91
Number weight 1848/18          
102.66

Rhodium (Plate XVII, 2):

14 bars of 134 atoms             
1876
Atomic weight                  
102.23
Number weight 1876/18          
104.22

Palladium (XVIII, 3):

14 bars of 136 atoms             
1904
Atomic weight                  
105.74
Number weight 1904/18          
105.77

The third sub-group, osmium, iridium and platinum, is, of course, more
complicated in its composition, but its builders succeed in preserving the
bar form, gaining the necessary increase by a multiplication of contained
spheres within the ovoids. Osmium has one peculiarity: the ovoid marked a
(XVIII, 4) takes the place of axis in the upper
half of the bar, and the three ovoids, marked
b, revolve round it. In the lower half, the four ovoids, c,
revolve round the central axis. In platinum, we have marked two forms as
platinum A and platinum B, the latter having two four-atomed spheres (XVIII, 6 b) in the place of the two triplets
marked a. It may well be that what we have called platinum B is not a
variety of platinum, but a new element, the addition of two atoms in a bar
being exactly that which separates the other elements within each of the
sub-groups. It will be noticed that the four lower sections of the bars are
identical in all the members of this sub-group, each ovoid containing thirty
atoms. The upper ring of ovoids in iridium and platinum A are also
identical, but for the substitution, in platinum A, of a quartet for a
triplet in the second and third ovoids; their cones are identical,
containing twenty-one atoms, like those of silver and tin.

Osmium (Plate XVIII, 4):

14 bars of 245 atoms           
3430
Atomic weight                
189.55
Number weight 3430/18        
190.55

Iridium (Plate XVIII, 5):

14 bars of 247 atoms           
3458
Atomic weight                
191.11
Number weight 3458/18        
192.11

Platinum A (Plate XVIII, 6 a):

14 bars of 249 atoms           
3486
Atomic weight                
193.66
Number weight 3486/18        
193.34

Platinum B (Plate XVIII, 6 b):

14 bars of 251 atoms           
3514
Atomic weight                
——
Number weight 3514/18        
195.22

V a.—The Spike Groups.

I place within this group lithium, potassium, rubidium, fluorine, and
manganese, because of their similarity in internal composition. Manganese
has fourteen spikes, arranged as in the iron group, but radiating from a
central globe. Potassium has nine, rubidium has sixteen, in both cases
radiating from a central globe. Lithium (Plate IV, 2)
and fluorine (Plate IV, 3) are the two types which
dominate the group, lithium supplying the spike which is reproduced in all
of them, and fluorine the "nitrogen balloon" which appears in all save
lithium. It will be seen that the natural affinities are strongly marked.
They are all monads and paramagnetic; lithium, potassium and rubidium are
positive, while fluorine and manganese are negative. We seem thus to have a
pair, corresponding with each other, as in other cases, and the
interperiodic group is left interperiodic and congruous within itself.

Plate XIX.
Plate XIX.

Lithium (Plate IV, 2 and Plate XIX, 1) is a striking and beautiful form, with its upright cone, or spike, its eight radiating petals (X) at the base of the cone, and the plate-like support in the centre of which is a globe, on which the spike rests. The spike revolves swiftly on its axis, carrying the petals with it; the plate revolves equally swiftly in the opposite direction. Within the spike are two globes and a long ovoid; the spheres within the globe revolve as a cross; within the ovoid are four spheres containing atoms arranged on tetrahedra, and a central sphere with an axis of three atoms surrounded by a spinning wheel of six.

LITHIUM: Spike of 63 atoms                
63
8 petals of 6 atoms              
48
Central globe of 16 atoms        
16

—-

Total      127

—-
Atomic weight                  
6.98
Number weight 127/18           
7.05

Potassium (Plate XIX, 2) consists of nine radiating lithium spikes, but has not petals; its central globe contains one hundred and thirty-four atoms, consisting of the "nitrogen balloon," encircled by six four-atomed spheres.

POTASSIUM: 9 bars of 63 atoms            
567
Central globe                 
134

—-

Total       701

—-
Atomic weight               
38.94
Number weight
701/18         38.85

(The weight, as determined by Richards (Nature, July 18, 1907) is
39.114.)

Rubidium: (Plate XIX, 3) adds an ovoid, containing three spheres—two triplets and a sextet—to the lithium spike, of which it has sixteen, and its central globe is composed of three "balloons."

RUBIDIUM: 16 spikes of 75 atoms         
1200
Central globe                  
330

—-

Total        1530

—-
Atomic weight                
84.85
Number weight 1530/18        
85.00

The corresponding negative group consists only of fluorine and manganese, so
far as our investigations have gone.

Fluorine (Plate IV, 3, and
Plate XVII, 1) is a most peculiar looking object like a projectile, and gives one the impression of being ready to shoot off on the smallest provocation. The eight spikes, reversed funnels, coming to a point, are probably responsible for this warlike appearance. The remainder of the body is occupied by two "balloons."

FLUORINE: 8 spikes of 15 atoms           
120
2 balloons                     
220

—-

Total        340

—-
Atomic weight                
18.90
Number weight 340/18         
18.88

Manganese (Plate XVII, 2) has fourteen spikes radiating from a central "balloon."

MANGANESE: 14 spikes of 63 atoms         
882
Central balloon               
110

—-

Total          992

—-
Atomic weight               
54.57
Number weight
992/18         55.11



IX.

We have now to consider the breaking up of the octahedral groups, and more
and more, as we proceed, do we find that the most complicated arrangements
are reducible to simple elements which are already familiar.

Carbon (Plate III, 5, and XV,
1).

Dissociation of Carbon.

Carbon is the typical octahedron, and a clear understanding of this will
enable us to follow easily the constitution and disintegration of the
various members of these groups. Its appearance as a chemical atom is shown
on Plate III, and see XV, 1. On the proto level the chemical atom breaks up into
four segments, each consisting of a pair of funnels connected by a single
atom; this is the proto element which appears at the end of each arm of the
cross in titanium and zirconium. On the meta level the five six-atomed
"cigars" show two neutral combinations, and the truncated "cigar" of five
atoms is also neutral; the "leaves" yield two forms of triplet, five
different types being thus yielded by each pair of funnels, exclusive of the
linking atom. The hyper level has triplets, duads and units.

Titanium (Plate III, 6, and XV,
2, 3).

Dissociation of Titanium and Zirconium.

On the proto level, the cross breaks up completely, setting free the pairs
of funnels with the linking atom (a and b), as in carbon, the
four bodies marked c, the twelve marked d, and the central
globe marked e. The latter breaks up again, setting free its five
intersecting cigar-bearing tetrahedra, which follow their usual course (see
Occultum, p. 44). The eight-atomed body in the centre
makes a ring of seven atoms round a central one, like that in occultum (see
p. 44, diagram B), from which it only differs in having the central atom,
and breaks up similarly, setting the central atom free. The ovoid c
sets free its four contained globes, and the ovoid d sets free the
three within it. Thus sixty-one proto elements are yielded by titanium. On
the meta level, c (titanium 3) breaks up into star-like and cruciform
bodies; the component parts of these are easily followed; on the hyper
level, of the four forms of triplets one behaves as in carbon, and the
others are shown, a,
b and f; the cruciform quintet yields a triplet and a duad,
c and d; the tetrahedra yield two triplets g and
h, and two units; the septet, a triplet k and a quartet
j. On the meta level, the bodies from d behave like their
equivalents in sodium, each d shows two quartets and a sextet,
breaking up, on the hyper level, into four duads and two triads.

Zirconium (Plate XV, 2, 5).

Zirconium reproduces in its c the four forms that we have already
followed in the corresponding c of titanium, and as these are set
free on the proto level, and follow the same course on the meta and hyper
levels, we need not repeat them. The central globe of zirconium
c sets free its nine contained bodies; eight of these are similar and
are figured in the diagram; it will be observed that the central body is the
truncated "cigar" of carbon; their behaviour on the meta and hyper levels is
easily followed there. The central sphere is also figured; the cigar follows
its usual course, and its companions unite into a sextet and an octet. The
d
ovoid liberates five bodies, four of which we have already seen in
titanium, as the crosses and sextet of sodium, and which are figured under
titanium; the four quartets within the larger globe also follow a sodium
model, and are given again.

Silicon (Plate XVI, 1).

Dissociation of Silicon and Tin.

In silicon, the ovoids are set free from the funnels on the proto level, and
the truncated "cigar," playing the part of a leaf, is also liberated. This,
and the four "cigars," which escape from their ovoids, pass along their
usual course. The quintet and quartet remain together, and form a
nine-atomed body on the meta level, yielding a sextet and a triplet on the
hyper.

Germanium (Plate XVI, 2, 4).

The central globe, with its two "cigar"-bearing tetrahedra, need not delay
us; the tetrahedra are set free and follow the occultum disintegration, and
the central four atoms is the sodium cross that we had in titanium. The
ovoids (XVI, 4) are liberated on the proto level,
and the "cigar," as usual, bursts its way through and goes along its
accustomed path. The others remain linked on the meta level, and break up
into two triangles and a quintet on the hyper.

Tin (Plate XVI, 3, 4).

Here we have only the spike to consider, as the funnels are the same as in
germanium, and the central globe is that of titanium, omitting the eight
atomed centre. The cone of the spike we have had in silver (see p. 729, May), and it is set free on the proto level. The
spike, as in zinc, becomes a large sphere, with the single septet in the
centre, the remaining six bodies circling round it on differing planes. They
break up as shown. (Tin is Sn.)

Iron (Plate IV, I, and XVII,
3).

Dissociation of Iron, Cobalt and Nickel.

We have already dealt with the affinities of this peculiar group, and we
shall see, in the disintegration, even more clearly, the close relationships
which exist according to the classification which we here follow.

The fourteen bars of iron break asunder on the proto level, and each sets
free its contents—a cone and three ovoids, which as usual, become spheres.
The twenty-eight-atomed cone becomes a four-sided figure, and the ovoids
show crystalline contents. They break up, on the meta level as shown in the
diagram, and are all reduced to triplets and duads on the hyper level.

Cobalt (Plate XVII, 4).

The ovoids in cobalt are identical with those of iron; the higher ovoids,
which replace the cone of iron, show persistently the crystalline forms so
noticeable throughout this group.

Nickel (Plate XVII, 5).

The two additional atoms in a bar, which alone separate nickel from cobalt,
are seen in the upper sphere of the central ovoid.

Ruthenium (Plate XVIII, 1).

The lower ovoids in ruthenium are identical in composition, with those of
iron, cobalt and nickel and may be studied under Iron. The upper ones only
differ by the addition of a triplet.

Rhodium (Plate XVIII, 2).

Rhodium has a septet, which is to be seen in the c of titanium (see
k
in the titanium diagram) and differs only in this from its group.

Palladium (Plate XVIII, 3).

In palladium this septet appears as the upper sphere in every ovoid of the
upper ring.

Osmium (Plate XVIII, 4).

We have here no new constituents; the ovoids are set free on the proto level
and the contained globes on the meta, all being of familiar forms. The
cigars, as usual, break free on the proto level, and leave their ovoid with
only four contained spheres, which unite into two nine-atomed bodies as in
silicon (see above).

Iridium (Plate XVIII, 5.)

The twenty-one-atomed cone of silver here reappears, and its proceedings may
be followed under that metal (see diagram, p. 729, May). The remaining bodies call for no remark.

Platinum (Plate XVIII, 6).

Again the silver cone is with us. The remaining bodies are set free on the
proto level, and their contained spheres on the meta.

Lithium (Plate IV, 2, and XIX,
1).

Dissociation of Lithium.

Here we have some new combinations, which recur persistently in its allies.
The bodies a, in Plate XIX, 1, are at the top and bottom of the
ellipse; they come to right and left of it in the proto state, and each
makes a twelve-atomed body on the meta level.

The five bodies within the ellipse, three monads and two sextets, show two
which we have had before: d, which behaves like the quintet and
quartet in silicon, after their junction, and b, which we have had in
iron. The two bodies c are a variant of the square-based pyramid, one
atom at the apex, and two at each of the other angles. The globe, e,
is a new form, the four tetrahedra of the proto level making a single
twelve-atomed one on the meta. The body a splits up into triplets on
the hyper; b and d follow their iron and silicon models; c
yields four duads and a unit; e
breaks into four quartets.

Potassium (Plate XIX, 2).

Potassium repeats the lithium spike; the central globe shows the "nitrogen
balloon," which we already know, and which is surrounded on the proto level
with six tetrahedra, which are set free on the meta and behave as in cobalt.
Hence we have nothing new.

Rubidium (Plate XIX, 3).

Again the lithium spike, modified slightly by the introduction of an ovoid,
in place of the top sphere; the forms here are somewhat unusual, and the
triangles of the sextet revolve round each other on the meta level; all the
triads break up on the hyper level into duads and units.

Fluorine (Plate IV, 3, and Plate
XVII
, 1).

The reversed funnels of fluorine split asunder on the proto level, and are
set free, the "balloons" also floating off independently. The funnels, as
usual, become spheres, and on the meta level set free their contained
bodies, three quartets and a triplet from each of the eight. The balloons
disintegrate in the usual way.

Manganese (Plate XVII, 2).

Manganese offers us nothing new, being composed of "lithium spikes" and
"nitrogen balloons."



X.

VI.—The Star Groups.

We have now reached the last of the groups as arranged on Sir William
Crookes' lemniscates, that forming the "neutral" column; it is headed by
helium, which is sui generis. The remainder are in the form of a flat
star (see Plate IV, 4), with a centre formed of five
intersecting and "cigar"-bearing tetrahedra, and six radiating arms. Ten of
these have been observed, five pairs in which the second member differs but
slightly from the first; they are: Neon, Meta-neon; Argon, Metargon;
Krypton, Meta-krypton; Xenon, Meta-xenon; Kalon, Meta-kalon; the last pair
and the meta forms are not yet discovered by chemists. These all show the
presence of a periodic law; taking an arm of the star in each of the five
pairs, we find the number of atoms to be as follows :—

40       99      224     
363      489
47      106      231     
370      496

It will be observed that the meta form in each case shows seven more atoms
than its fellow.

Plate XX.
Plate XX.

Helium (Plate III, 5, and
Plate XX, 1) shows two "cigar"-bearing tetrahedra, and two hydrogen triangles, the tetrahedra revolving round an egg-shaped central body, and the triangles spinning on their own axes while performing a similar revolution. The whole has an attractively airy appearance, as of a fairy element.

HELIUM: Two tetrahedra of 24 atoms   48
Two triangles of 9 atoms    
18
Central egg                  
6

—-

Total              
72

—-
Atomic weight             
3.94
Number weight 72/18       
4.00

Neon (Plate XX, 2 and 6) has six arms of the pattern shown in 2, radiating from the central globe.

NEON: Six arms of 40 atoms       240
Central tetrahedra        
120

—-

Total         360

—-
Atomic weight           
19.90
Number weight 360/18    
20.00

Meta-neon (Plate XX, 3 and 6) differs from its comrade by the insertion of an additional atom in each of the groups included in the second body within its arm, and substituting a seven-atomed group for one of the triplets in neon.

META-NEON: Six arms of 47 atoms    282
Central tetrahedra     
120

—-
Total                             
402

—-
Atomic weight                    
—-
Number weight 402/18            
22.33

Argon (Plate XX, 4, 6 and 7) shows within its arms the b 63 which we met in nitrogen, yttrium, vanadium and niobium, but not the "balloon," which we shall find with it in krypton and its congeners.

ARGON: Six arms of 99 atoms     594
Central tetrahedra      
120

—-

Total          714

—-
Atomic weight         
39.60
Number weight 714/18   39.66

Metargon (Plate XX, 5, 6 and 7) again shows only an additional seven atoms in each arm.

METARGON: Six arms of 106 atoms   636
Central tetrahedra     
120

—-

Total       756

—-
Atomic weight                   
—-
Number weight 756/18              
42

Plate XXI.
Plate XXI.

Krypton (Plate XXI, 1 and 4, and Plate XX, 6 and 7) contains the nitrogen "balloon," elongated by its juxtaposition to b 63. The central tetrahedra appear as usual.

KRYPTON:  Six arms of 224 atoms            
1344
Central tetrahedra                
120

—–

Total        1464

—–
Atomic weight                   
81.20
Number weight 1464/18           
81.33

Meta-Krypton differs only from krypton by the substitution of z for y in each arm of the star.

META-KRYPTON:  Six arms of 231 atoms       
1386

Central tetrahedra           
120

—–

Total        1506

—–

Atomic weight              
—–

Number weight 1506/18       83.66

Xenon (Plate XXI, 2 and 4, and Plate XX, 6 and 7) has a peculiarity shared only by kalon, that X and y are asymmetrical, the centre of one having three atoms and the centre of the other two. Is this done in order to preserve the difference of seven from its comrade?

XENON:  Six arms of 363 atoms              
2178
Central tetrahedra                  
120

—–

Total        2298

—–
Atomic weight                    
127.10
Number weight 2298/18            
127.66

Meta-Xenon differs from xenon only by the substitution of two z's for X and y.

META-XENON:  Six arms of 370 atoms         
2220
Central
tetrahedra              
120

—–

Total        2340

—–
Atomic weight                 
—–
Number weight
2340/18            130

Kalon (Plate XXI, 3 and 4, and Plate XX, 6 and 7) has a curious cone, possessing a kind of tail which we have not observed elsewhere; X and y show the same asymmetry as in xenon.

KALON: Six arms of 489 atoms         
2934
Central tetrahedra             
120

—-

Total     3054

—-
Atomic weight                 
—-
Number weight 3054/18       
169.66

Meta-Kalon again substitutes two z's for X and y.

META-KALON: Six arms of 496 atoms          
2976
Central
tetrahedra              
120

—-

Total           3096

—-
Atomic weight                  
—-
Number weight
3096/18            172

Only a few atoms of kalon and meta-kalon have been found in the air of a
fair-sized room.

It does not seem worth while to break up these elements, for their component
parts are so familiar. The complicated groups—a
110, b 63 and c 120—have all been fully dealt with in preceding
pages.



There remains now only radium, of the elements which we have, so far,
examined, and that will be now described and will bring to an end this
series of observations. A piece of close and detailed work of this kind,
although necessarily imperfect, will have its value in the future, when
science along its own lines shall have confirmed these researches.

It will have been observed that our weights, obtained by counting, are
almost invariably slightly in excess of the orthodox ones: it is interesting
that in the latest report of the International Commission (November 13,
1907), printed in the Proceedings of the Chemical Society of London,
Vol. XXIV, No. 33, and issued on January 25, 1908, the weight of hydrogen is
now taken at 1.008 instead of at 1. This would slightly raise all the
orthodox weights; thus aluminium rises from 26.91 to 27.1, antimony from
119.34 to 120.2, and so on.



XI.

Radium.

Plate XXII.
Plate XXII.

Radium has the form of a tetrahedron, and it is in the tetrahedral groups
(see article IV) that we shall find its nearest
congeners; calcium, strontium, chromium, molybdenum resemble it most closely
in general internal arrangements, with additions from zinc and cadmium.
Radium has a complex central sphere (Plate XXII), extraordinarily vivid and living; the
whirling motion is so rapid that continued accurate observation is very
difficult; the sphere is more closely compacted than the centre-piece in
other elements, and is much larger in proportion to the funnels and spikes
than is the case with the elements above named; reference to Plate VIII will show that in these the funnels are much
larger than the centres, whereas in radium the diameter of the sphere and
the length of the funnel or spike are about equal. Its heart consists of a
globe containing seven atoms, which assume on the proto level the prismatic
form shown in cadmium, magnesium and selenium. This globe is the centre of
two crosses, the arms of which show respectively three-atomed and two-atomed
groups. Round this sphere are arranged, as on radii, twenty-four segments,
each containing five bodies—four quintets and a septet—and six loose atoms,
which float horizontally across the mouth of the segment; the whole sphere
has thus a kind of surface of atoms. On the proto level these six atoms in
each segment gather together and form a "cigar." In the rush of the streams
presently to be described one of these atoms is occasionally torn away, but
is generally, if not always, replaced by the capture of another which is
flung into the vacated space.

Each of the four funnels opens, as usual, on one face of the tetrahedron,
and they resemble the funnels of strontium and molybdenum but contain three
pillars instead of four (Plate XXIII). They stand
within the funnel as though at the angles of a triangle, not side by side.
The contained bodies, though numerous, contain forms which are all familiar.

The spikes alternate with the funnels, and point to the angles of the
tetrahedron as in zinc and cadmium; each spike contains three "lithium
spikes" (see Plate XIX) with a ten-atomed cone or
cap at the top, floating above the three (Plate XXIV).
The "petals" or "cigars" of lithium exist in the central globe in the
floating atoms, and the four-atomed groups which form the lithium "plate"
may be seen in the funnels, so that the whole of lithium appears in radium.

So much for its composition. But a very peculiar result, so far unobserved
elsewhere, arises from the extraordinarily rapid whirling of the central
sphere. A kind of vortex is formed, and there is a constant and powerful
indraught through the funnels. By this, particles are drawn in from without,
and these are swept round with the sphere, their temperature becoming much
raised, and they are then violently shot out through the spikes. It is these
jets which occasionally sweep away an atom from the surface of the sphere.
These "particles" may be atoms, or they may be bodies from any of the
etheric levels; in some cases these bodies break up and form new
combinations. In fact lithium seems like a kind of vortex of creative
activity, drawing in, breaking up, recombining, shooting forth—a most
extraordinary element.

RADIUM: 4 funnels of 618 atoms         
2472
4 spikes of 199 atoms           
796
Central sphere                  
819

—-

Total      4087

—-
Atomic weight                  
—-
Number weight 4087/18        
227.05

Plate XXIV.
Plate XXIV.

Plate XXIII.
Plate XXIII.


APPENDIX.

THE ÆTHER OF SPACE.

Much discussion has taken place, especially between physicists and chemists,
over the nature of the substances with which all space must, according to
scientific hypothesis, be filled. One side contends that it is infinitely
thinner than the thinnest gas, absolutely frictionless and without weight;
the other asserts that it is denser than the densest solid. In this
substance the ultimate atoms of matter are thought to float, like motes in a
sunbeam, and light, heat and electricity are supposed to be its vibrations.

Theosophical investigators, using methods not at the disposal of physical
science, have found that this hypothesis includes under one head two
entirely different and widely separated sets of phenomena. They have been
able to deal with states of matter higher than the gaseous and have observed
that it is by means of vibrations of this finer matter that light, heat and
electricity manifest themselves to us. Seeing that matter in these higher
states thus performs the functions attributed to the ether of science, they
have (perhaps unadvisedly) called these states etheric, and have thus left
themselves without a convenient name for that substance which fulfils the
other part of the scientific requirements.

Let us for the moment name this substance koilon, since it fills what
we are in the habit of calling empty space. What mûlaprakrti, or
"mother-matter," is to the inconceivable totality of universes, koilon is to
our particular universe—not to our solar system merely but to the vast unit
which includes all visible suns. Between koilon and mûlaprakrti there must
be various stages, but we have at present no direct means of estimating
their number or of knowing anything whatever about them.

In an ancient occult treatise, however, we read of a "colorless spiritual
fluid" "which exists everywhere and forms the first foundation on which our
solar system is built. Outside the latter, it is found in its pristine
purity only between the stars (suns) of the universe…. As its substance is
of a different kind from that known on earth, the inhabitants of the latter,
seeing through it, believe, in their illusion and ignorance, that it
is empty space. There is not one finger's breadth of void space in the whole
boundless universe."(21) "The mother-substance" is said, in this
treatise, to produce this æther of space as its seventh grade of density,
and all objective suns are said to have this for their "substance."

To any power of sight which we can bring to bear upon it, this koilon
appears to be homogeneous, though it is probably nothing of the kind, since
homogeneity can belong to the mother-substance alone. It is out of all
proportion denser than any other substance known to us, infinitely denser—if
we may be pardoned the expression; so much denser that it seems to belong to
another type, or order, of density. But now comes the startling part of the
investigation: we might expect matter to be a densification of this koilon;
it is nothing of the kind. Matter is not koilon, but the absence of
koilon
, and at first sight, matter and space appear to have changed
places, and emptiness has become solidity, solidity has become emptiness.

To help us to understand this clearly let us examine the ultimate atom of
the physical plane (see pp. 21-23). It is composed of
ten rings or wires, which lie side by side, but never touch one another. If
one of these wires be taken away from the atom, and be, as it were,
untwisted from its peculiar spiral shape and laid out on a flat surface, it
will be seen that it is a complete circle—a tightly twisted endless coil.
This coil is itself a spiral containing 1680 turns; it can be unwound, and
it will then make a much larger circle. This process of unwinding may be
again performed, and a still bigger circle obtained, and this can be
repeated till the seven sets of spirillæ are all unwound, and we have a huge
circle of the tiniest imaginable dots, like pearls threaded on an invisible
string. These dots are so inconceivably small that many millions of them are
needed to make one ultimate physical atom, and while the exact number is not
readily ascertainable, several different lines of calculation agree in
indicating it as closely approximate to the almost inconceivable total of
fourteen thousand millions. Where figures are so huge, direct counting is
obviously impossible, but fortunately the different parts of the atom are
sufficiently alike to enable us to make an estimate in which the margin of
error is not likely to be very great. The atom consists of ten wires, which
divide themselves naturally into two groups—the three which are thicker and
more prominent, and the seven thinner ones which correspond to the colors
and planets. These latter appear to be identical in constitution though the
forces flowing through them must differ, since each responds most readily to
its own special set of vibrations. By actual counting it has been discovered
that the numbers of coils or spirillæ of the first order in each wire is
1680; and the proportion of the different orders of spirillæ to one another
is equal in all cases that have been examined, and correspond with the
number of dots in the ultimate spirillæ of the lowest order. The ordinary
sevenfold rule works quite accurately with the thinner coils, but there is a
very curious variation with regard to the set of three. As may be seen from
the drawings, these are obviously thicker and more prominent, and this
increase of size is produced by an augmentation (so slight as to be barely
perceptible) in the proportion to one another of the different orders of
spirillæ and in the number of dots in the lowest. This augmentation,
amounting at present to not more than .00571428 of the whole of each case,
suggests the unexpected possibility that this portion of the atom may be
somehow actually undergoing a change—may in fact be in process of growth, as
there is reason to suppose that these three thicker spirals originally
resembled the others.

Since observation shows us that each physical atom is represented by
forty-nine astral atoms, each astral atom by forty-nine mental atoms, and
each mental atom by forty-nine of those on the buddhic plane, we have here
evidently several terms of a regular progressive series, and the natural
presumption is that the series continues where we are no longer able to
observe it. Further probability is lent to this assumption by the remarkable
fact that—if we assume one dot to be what corresponds to an atom on the
seventh or highest of our planes (as is suggested in
The Ancient Wisdom, p. 42) and then suppose the law of multiplication
to begin its operation, so that 49 dots shall form the atom of the next or
sixth plane, 2401 that of the fifth, and so on—we find that the number
indicated for the physical atom (496) corresponds almost exactly
with the calculation based upon the actual counting of the coils. Indeed, it
seems probable that but for the slight growth of the three thicker wires of
the atom the correspondence would have been perfect.

It must be noted that a physical atom cannot be directly broken up into
astral atoms. If the unit of force which whirls those millions of dots into
the complicated shape of a physical atom be pressed back by an effort of
will over the threshold of the astral plane, the atom disappears instantly,
for the dots are released. But the same unit of force, working now upon a
higher level, expresses itself not through one astral atom, but through a
group of 49. If the process of pressing back the unit of force is repeated,
so that it energises upon the mental plane, we find the group there enlarged
to the number of 2401 of those higher atoms. Upon the buddhic plane the
number of atoms formed by the same amount of force is very much greater
still—probably the cube of 49 instead of the square, though they have not
been actually counted. Therefore one physical atom is not composed of
forty-nine astral or 2401 mental atoms, but corresponds to them, in
the sense that the force which manifests through it would show itself on
those higher planes by energising respectively those numbers of atoms.

The dots, or beads, seem to be the constituents of all matter of which we,
at present, know anything; astral, mental and buddhic atoms are built of
them, so we may fairly regard them as fundamental units, the basis of
matter.

These units are all alike, spherical and absolutely simple in construction.
Though they are the basis of all matter, they are not themselves matter;
they are not blocks but bubbles. They do not resemble bubbles floating in
the air, which consist of a thin film of water separating the air within
them from the air outside, so that the film has both an outer and an inner
surface. Their analogy is rather with the bubbles that we see rising in
water, before they reach the surface, bubbles which may be said to have only
one surface—that of the water which is pushed back by the contained air.
Just as such bubbles are not water, but are precisely the spots from which
water is absent, so these units are not koilon, but the absence of
koilon—the only spots where it is not—specks of nothingness floating in it,
so to speak, for the interior of these space-bubbles is an absolute void to
the highest power of vision that we can turn upon them.

That is the startling, well-nigh incredible, fact. Matter is nothingness,
the space obtained by pressing back an infinitely dense substance; Fohat
"digs holes in space" of a verity, and the holes are the airy nothingnesses,
the bubbles, of which "solid" universes are built.

What are they, then, these bubbles, or rather, what is their content, the
force which can blow bubbles in a substance of infinite density? The
ancients called that force "the Breath," a graphic symbol, which seems to
imply that they who used it had seen the kosmic process, had seen the
Logos when He breathed into the "waters of space," and
made the bubbles which build universes. Scientists may call this "Force" by
what names they will—names are nothing; to us, Theosophists, it is the
Breath of the Logos, we know not whether of the
Logos
of this solar system or of a yet mightier Being; the latter
would seem the more likely, since in the above-quoted occult treatise all
visible suns are said to have this as their substance.

The Breath of the Logos, then, is the force which
fills these spaces; His the force which holds them open against the
tremendous pressure of the koilon; they are full of His Life, of Himself,
and everything we call matter, on however high or low a plane, is instinct
with divinity; these units of force, of life, the bricks with which He
builds His universe, are His very life scattered through space; truly is it
written: "I established this universe with a portion of myself." And when He
draws in His breath, the waters of space will close in again, and the
universe will have disappeared. It is only a breath.

The outbreathing which makes these bubbles is quite distinct from, and long
antecedent to, the three outpourings, or Life-Waves, so familiar to the
theosophical student. The first Life-Wave catches up these bubbles, and
whirls them into the various arrangements which we call the atoms of the
several planes, and aggregates them into the molecules, and on the physical
plane into the chemical elements. The worlds are built out of these voids,
these emptinesses, which seem to us "nothing" but are divine force. It is
matter made from the privation of matter. How true were H.P.B.'s statements
in "The Secret Doctrine": "Matter is nothing but an aggregation of atomic
forces" (iii, 398); "Buddha taught that the primitive substance is eternal
and unchangeable. Its vehicle is the pure luminous æther, the boundless
infinite space, not a void, resulting from the absence of all forms, but on
the contrary, the foundation of all forms" (iii, 402).

How vividly, how unmistakably this knowledge brings home to us the great
doctrine of Mâyâ, the transitoriness and unreality of earthly things, the
utterly deceptive nature of appearances! When the candidate for initiation
sees (not merely believes, remember, but actually
sees) that what has always before seemed to him empty space is in
reality a solid mass of inconceivable density, and that the matter which has
appeared to be the one tangible and certain basis of things is not only by
comparison tenuous as gossamer (the "web" spun by "Father-Mother"), but is
actually composed of emptiness and nothingness—is itself the very negation
of matter—then for the first time he thoroughly appreciates the
valuelessness of the physical senses as guides to the truth. Yet even more
clearly still stands out the glorious certainty of the immanence of the
Divine; not only is everything ensouled by the Logos,
but even its visible manifestation is literally part of Him, is built of His
very substance, so that Matter as well as Spirit becomes sacred to the
student who really understands.

The koilon in which all these bubbles are formed undoubtedly represents a
part, and perhaps the principal part, of what science describes as the
luminiferous æther. Whether it is actually the bearer of the vibrations of
light and heat through interplanetary space is as yet undetermined. It is
certain that these vibrations impinge upon and are perceptible to our bodily
senses only through the etheric matter of the physical plane. But this by no
means proves that they are conveyed through space in the same manner, for we
know very little of the extent to which the physical etheric matter exists
in interplanetary and interstellar space, though the examination of meteoric
matter and kosmic dust shows that at least some of it is scattered there.

The scientific theory is that the æther has some quality which enables it to
transmit at a certain definite velocity transverse waves of all lengths and
intensities—that velocity being what is commonly called the speed of light,
190,000 miles per second. Quite probably this may be true of koilon, and if
so it must also be capable of communicating those waves to bubbles or
aggregations of bubbles, and before the light can reach our eyes there must
be a downward transference from plane to plane similar to that taking place
when a thought awakens emotion or causes action.

In a recent pamphlet on "The Density of Æther," Sir Oliver Lodge remarks:—

"Just as the ratio of mass to volume is small in the case of a solar system
or a nebula or a cobweb, I have been driven to think that the observed
mechanical density of matter is probably an excessively small fraction of
the total density of the substance or æther contained in the space which it
thus partially occupies—the substance of which it may hypothetically be held
to be composed.

"Thus, for instance, consider a mass of platinum, and assume that its atoms
are composed of electrons, or of some structures not wholly dissimilar: the
space which these bodies actually fill, as compared with the whole space
which in a sense they 'occupy,' is comparable to one ten-millionth of the
whole, even inside each atom; and the fraction is still smaller if it refers
to the visible mass. So that a kind of minimum estimate of ætherial density,
on this basis, would be something like ten thousand million times that of
platinum."

And further on he adds that this density may well turn out to be fifty
thousand million times that of platinum. "The densest matter known," he
says, "is trivial and gossamer-like compared with the unmodified æther in
the same space."

Incredible as this seems to our ordinary ideas, it is undoubtedly an
understatement rather than an exaggeration of the true proportion as
observed in the case of koilon. We shall understand how this can be so if we
remember that koilon seems absolutely homogeneous and solid even when
examined by a power of magnification which makes physical atoms appear in
size and arrangement like cottages scattered over a lonely moor, and when we
further add to this the recollection that the bubbles of which these atoms
in turn are composed are themselves what may be not inaptly called fragments
of nothingness.

In the same pamphlet Sir Oliver Lodge makes a very striking estimate of the
intrinsic energy of the æther. He says: "The total output of a
million-kilowatt power station for thirty million years exists permanently,
and at present inaccessibly in every cubic millimetre of space." Here again
he is probably underestimating the stupendous truth.

It may naturally be asked how, if all this be so, it is possible that we can
move about freely in a solid ten thousand million times denser, as Sir
Oliver Lodge says, than platinum. The obvious answer is that, where
densities differ sufficiently, they can move through each other with perfect
freedom; water or air can pass through cloth; air can pass through water; an
astral form passes unconsciously through a physical wall, or through an
ordinary human body; many of us have seen an astral form walk through a
physical, neither being conscious of the passage; it does not matter whether
we say that a ghost has passed through a wall, or a wall has passed through
a ghost. A gnome passes freely through a rock, and walks about within the
earth, as comfortably as we walk about in the air. A deeper answer is that
consciousness can recognize only consciousness, that since we are of the
nature of the Logos we can sense only those things which are also of His
nature. These bubbles are His essence, His life, and, therefore, we, who
also are part of Him, can see the matter which is built of his substance,
for all forms are but manifestations of Him. The koilon is to us
non-manifestation, because we have not unfolded powers which enable us to
cognise it, and it may be the manifestation of a loftier order of
Logoi, utterly beyond our ken.

As none of our investigators can raise his consciousness to the highest
plane of our universe, the âdi-tattva plane, it may be of interest to
explain how it is possible for them to see what may very probably be the
atom of that plane. That this may be understood it is essential to remember
that the power of magnification by means of which these experiments are
conducted is quite apart from the faculty of functioning upon one or other
of the planes. The latter is the result of a slow and gradual unfoldment of
the Self, while the former is merely a special development of one of the
many powers latent in man. All the planes are round us here, just as much as
any other point in space, and if a man sharpens his sight until he can see
their tiniest atoms he can make a study of them, even though he may as yet
be far from the level necessary to enable him to understand and function
upon the higher planes as a whole, or to come into touch with the glorious
Intelligences who gather those atoms into vehicles for Themselves.

A partial analogy may be found in the position of the astronomer with regard
to the stellar universe, or let us say the Milky Way. He can observe its
constituent parts and learn a good deal about them along various lines, but
it is absolutely impossible for him to see it as a whole from outside, or to
form any certain conception of its true shape, and to know what it really
is. Suppose that the universe is, as many of the ancients thought, some
inconceivably vast Being, it is utterly impossible for us, here in the midst
of it, to know what that Being is or is doing, for that would mean raising
ourselves to a height comparable with His; but we may make extensive and
detailed examination of such particles of His body as happen to be within
our reach, for that means only the patient use of powers and machinery
already at our command.

Let it not be supposed that, in thus unfolding a little more of the wonders
of Divine Truth by pushing our investigations to the very farthest point at
present possible to us, we in any way alter or modify all that has been
written in theosophical books of the shape and constitution of the physical
atom, and of the wonderful and orderly arrangements by which it is grouped
into the various chemical molecules; all this remains entirely unaffected.

Nor is any change introduced as regards the three outpourings from the
Logos, and the marvellous facility with which the
matter of the various planes is by them moulded into forms for the service
of the evolving life. But if we wish to have a right view of the realities
underlying manifestation in this universe, we must to a considerable extent
reverse the ordinary conception as to what this matter essentially is.
Instead of thinking of its ultimate constituents as solid specks floating in
a void, we must realise that it is the apparent void itself which is solid,
and that the specks are but bubbles on it. That fact once grasped, all the
rest remains as before. The relative position of what we have hitherto
called matter and force is still for us the same as ever; it is only that,
on closer examination, both of these conceptions prove to be variants of
force, the one ensouling combinations of the other, and the real "matter,"
koilon, is seen to be something which has hitherto been altogether outside
our scheme of thought.

In view of this marvellous distribution of Himself in "space," the familiar
concept of the "sacrifice of the Logos" takes on a
new depth and splendour; this is His "dying in matter," His "perpetual
sacrifice," and it may be the very glory of the Logos that He can sacrifice Himself to the uttermost by thus
permeating and making Himself one with that portion of koilon which He
chooses as the field of His universe.

What koilon is, what its origin, whether it is itself changed by the Divine
Breath which is poured into it—does "Dark Space" thus become "Bright Space"
at the beginning of a manifestation?—these are questions to which we cannot
at present even indicate answers. Perchance an intelligent study of the
great Scriptures of the world may yield replies.



NOTES

(1) See footnote in next Chapter.

(2) The drawings of the elements were done by two Theosophical artists,
Herr Hecker and Mrs. Kirby, whom we sincerely thank; the diagrams, showing
the details of the construction of each "element," we owe to the most
painstaking labour of Mr. Jinarâjadâsa, without whose aid it would have been
impossible for us to have presented clearly and definitely the complicated
arrangements by which the chemical elements are built up. We have also to
thank him for a number of most useful notes, implying much careful research,
which are incorporated in the present series, and without which we could not
have written these papers.

(3) The atomic sub-plane.

(4) The astral plane.

(5) Known to Theosophists as Fohat, the force of which all the physical
plane forces—electricities—are differentiations.

(6) When Fohat "digs holes in space."

(7) The first life-wave, the work of the third Logos.

(8) A mâyâ, truly.

(9) By a certain action of the will, known to students, it is possible
to make such a space by pressing back and walling off the matter of space.

(10) Again the astral world.

(11) Each spirilla is animated by the life-force of a plane, and four
are at present normally active, one for each round. Their activity in an
individual may be prematurely forced by yoga practice.

(12) "The ten numbers of the sun. These are called Dis—in reality
space—the forces spread in space, three of which are contained in the Sun's
Atman, or seventh principle, and seven are the rays shot out by the Sun."
The atom is a sun in miniature in its own universe of the inconceivably
minute. Each of the seven whorls is connected with one of the Planetary
Logoi, so that each Planetary Logos has a direct influence playing on the
very matter of which all things are constructed. It may be supposed that the
three, conveying electricity, a differentiation of Fohat, are related to the
Solar Logoi.

(13) The action of electricity opens up ground of large extent, and
cannot be dealt with here. Does it act on the atoms themselves, or on
molecules, or sometimes on one and sometimes on the other? In soft iron, for
instance, are the internal arrangements of the chemical atom forcibly
distorted, and do they elastically return to their original relations when
released? and in steel is the distortion permanent? In all the diagrams the
heart-shaped body, exaggerated to show the depression caused by the inflow
and the point caused by the outflow, is a single atom.

(14) These sub-planes are familiar to the Theosophist as gaseous,
etheric, super-etheric, sub-atomic, atomic; or as Gas, Ether 4, Ether 3,
Ether 2, Ether 1.

(15) It must be remembered that the diagrams represent three-dimensional
objects, and the atoms are not all on a plane, necessarily.

(16) That is, the surrounding magnetic fields strike on each other.

(17) The fifth member of this group was not sought for.

(18) This, with references which appear later (pp. 32, 33, 50, etc.),
relates to articles which appeared in the Theosophist, 1908.

(19) Since writing the above I have noticed, in the London, Edinburgh
and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science
, conducted by
Dr. John Joly and Mr. William Francis, in an article entitled "Evolution and
Devolution of the Elements," the statement that it is probable that in "the
nebulous state of matter there are four substances, the first two being
unknown upon earth, the third being hydrogen and the fourth … helium. It
also seems probable that … hydrogen, the two unknown elements, and helium
are the four original elements from which all the other elements form. To
distinguish them from the others we will term them protons." This is
suggestive as regards hydrogen, but does not help us with regard to oxygen
and nitrogen.

(20) Theosophists call them Nature-Spirits, and often use the mediæval
term Elementals. Beings concerned with the elements truly are they, even
with chemical elements.

(21) Quoted in "The Secret Doctrine." H.P. Blavatsky, i, 309.

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durant votre trip d’apprentissage des cristaux, vous avez peut-être rencontré des mots et des phrases étranges que vous n’auriez peut-être jamais cru avoir un rapport avec les cristaux, comme le tétraèdre, l’icosaèdre et les robustes de Platon. Et tu pensais que tu n’aurais jamais besoin de ta géométrie après le lycée ! Alors, que sont exactement les robustes de Platon ? En termes simples, il s’agit de polygones pleins ( une forme bidimensionnelle où tous les côtés et les angles sont égaux ), qui ont des faces planes et dont chaque face a la même forme et la même taille. Platon a théorisé que les composants principaux ( terre, aspect, feu et eau ) étaient directement liés aux robustes. il y a cinq solides de Platon : Tétraèdre – 4 faces ( feu ) ; Cube – 6 faces ; Octaèdre – 8 faces ; Dodécaèdre – 12 faces, et Icosaèdre – 20 faces ; Tétraèdres, qui ressemblent à une pyramide, sont associés à l’élément feu. Les cubes sont associés à la terre. Les octaèdres ressemblent à un losange et sont liés à l’élément de l’air. Les icosaèdres ( composés de 20 triangles équilatéraux ) sont associés à le composant eau. Le dernier et souvent appelé le cinquième élément, l’éther, ou Akasha, a été nommé par Aristote et on dit que c’est ce qui compose le ciel. Le dernier solide de Platon, le dodécaèdre, est associé à l’élément d’éther. n

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