Platon – Wikipedia | solides de Platon spirituel

Philosophe grec classique

Platon (; PLAYING-tâgrec: Πλάτων Platon, prononcé (Plá.tɔːn) Plahton dans le grenier classique; 428/427 ou 424/423 – 348/347 av. J.-C.) était un philosophe athénien de la période classique de la Grèce antique, fondateur de l’école de réflexion platonicienne et de l’Académie, la première institution d’enseignement supérieur dans le monde occidental.

Il est largement considéré comme la figure centrale de l’histoire de la philosophie grecque et occidentale, aux côtés de son professeur Socrates et de son plus célèbre élève, Aristote.(En) Platon a aussi souvent été cité comme l'un des fondateurs de la religion et de la spiritualité occidentales.(4) Le soi-disant néoplatonisme de philosophes tels que Plotin et Porphyre a influencé Saint Augustin et donc le christianisme. Alfred North Whitehead a un jour déclaré: "La caractérisation générale la plus sûre de la tradition philosophique européenne est qu'elle se compose d'un certain nombre de notes de bas de page adressées à Platon."

Platon était l'innovateur du dialogue écrit et des formes dialectiques de la philosophie. Platon semble également avoir été le fondateur de la philosophie politique occidentale. Sa contribution la plus célèbre porte son nom, platonisme (aussi appelé ambiguïté réalisme platonique ou idéalisme platonique), doctrine de la raison pure pour apporter une solution réaliste au problème universel. Il est également l'homonyme de l'amour platonique et des solides platoniques.

Socrate, Pythagore pré-socratique, Héraclite et Parménide seraient ses influences philosophiques les plus cruciales, bien que peu d’œuvres des prédécesseurs subsistent, et une grande partie de ce que nous savons au sujet de ces personnages provient de Platon lui-même.(B) Contrairement à l'œuvre de presque tous ses contemporains, l'œuvre entière de Platon serait restée intacte pendant plus de 2400 ans.(7) Bien que leur popularité ait fluctué au fil des ans, les œuvres de Platon n'ont jamais été sans lecteurs depuis sa rédaction.

biographie

Début de la vie

Naissance et famille

Diogenes Laertius est une source majeure d'histoire de la philosophie grecque antique.

En raison du manque de comptes survivants, on en sait peu sur le début de la vie et l'éducation de Platon. Platon appartenait à une famille aristocratique et influente. Selon une tradition controversée, rapportée par le doxographe Diogène Laërtius, le père de Platon, Ariston, a prédit sa descendance du roi d'Athènes Codrus et du roi de Messénie Melanthus.(9)

Par sa mère, Platon était lié à Solon.

La mère de Platon était Perictione, dont la famille entretenait des relations avec le célèbre avocat athénien et poète lyrique Solon, l'un des sept viseurs, qui a aboli les lois de Draco (sauf la peine de mort pour meurtre).(10) Perictione était la soeur de Charmides et Claus Nieser, deux personnalités des trente tyrans connus sous le nom de trente, du régime oligarchique court (404-403 av. J.-C.), qui suivit la chute d'Athènes à la fin de la guerre du Péloponnèse (431-404 BC).(11) Selon certains récits, Ariston aurait tenté de forcer son attention sur Periction, mais il aurait échoué. alors Dieu Apollo lui apparut dans une vision, et en conséquence Ariston laissa le Perictione sans être inquiété.(12)

L'heure et le lieu exacts de la naissance de Platon sont inconnus. Sur la base de sources anciennes, la plupart des chercheurs modernes pensent qu'il est né à Athènes ou à Egine.(C) entre 429 et 423 avant JC, peu de temps après le début de la guerre du Péloponnèse.(D) La date traditionnelle de la naissance de Platon dans la 87e ou la 88e Olympiade, soit 428 ou 427 av. J.-C., est basée sur une interprétation discutable de Diogène Laertius, qui dit: "Quand (Socrate) fut parti, Platon vint à Cratyle, Heracleitean et Hermogenes , qui philosophe de la même manière que Parménide, puis, à quatre-vingt-huit ans, dit Hermodorus, (Platon) se rendit à Euclides à Mégara. "Cependant, comme le prétend Debra Nails, le texte ne dit pas que Platon a quitté Mégara immédiatement après avoir rejoint Cratyle et Hermogène. Dans son Septième lettre, Platon note que son âge est venu prendre le pouvoir des trente, a noté: "Mais un jeune de moins de vingt ans s’est fait rire s’il essayait de pénétrer dans l’arène politique". Les ongles forment ainsi la naissance de Platon à 424/423.

Selon Neanthes, Platon avait six ans de moins qu'Isocrates et est donc né la même année du décès de l'éminent homme d'État athénien Périclès (429 av. J.-C.). Jonathan Barnes considère 428 av. comme l'année de la naissance de Platon.(20)(25) Le grammatical Apollodorus d'Athènes dans son Chroniques affirme que Platon est né à la 88ème Olympiade.(17) les deux Suda et Sir Thomas Browne a également affirmé qu'il était né aux 88èmes Jeux Olympiques.(16) Une autre légende a prétendu que, quand il était enfant, Platon attendait sur ses lèvres pendant son sommeil: un œil pour la douceur du style dont il voulait parler à propos de la philosophie.(27)

Speusippus était le neveu de Platon.

Outre Platon lui-même, Ariston et Perictione ont eu trois autres enfants; deux fils, Adeimantus et Glaucon, et une fille, Potone, mère de Speusippus (le neveu et le successeur de Platon à la direction de l'académie).(11) Les frères Adeimantus et Glaucon sont mentionnés dans république comme fils d'ariston,(28) et probablement des frères à Platon, bien que certains aient prétendu être des oncles.(E) Dans un scénario je Articles mémorables, Le Xénophon a confondu le problème en présentant un Glaucon beaucoup plus jeune que Platon.(30)

Ariston semble être mort dans l'enfance de Platon, bien que la date exacte de sa mort soit difficile.(31) Perictione a épousé Pyrilampes, le frère de sa mère,(32) qui a souvent servi comme ambassadeur auprès de la cour persane et qui était un ami de Périclès, chef de la faction démocrate à Athènes.(33) Pyrilampes avait un fils d'un ancien mariage, Demus, connu pour sa beauté.(34) Perictione a donné naissance au deuxième fils de Pyrilamp, Antiphon, demi-frère de Platon, qui apparaît dans Parménide.(35)

Contrairement à son attachement à lui-même, Platon introduisait souvent dans ses dialogues ses proches parents ou les évoquait avec une certaine précision. Outre Adeimantus et Glaucon dans républiqueCharmides a un dialogue qui porte son nom; et les critiques parlent à la fois Charmides et Protagoras. Ces références, parmi d'autres, suggèrent une grande fierté familiale et nous permettent de reconstituer l'arbre généalogique de Platon. Selon Burnet, "la scène s'est ouverte Charmides est une glorification de toute la (famille) connexion … Les dialogues de Platon ne sont pas seulement un mémorial à Socrates, mais aussi les jours les plus heureux de leur propre famille. "

nom

Le fait que le philosophe dans sa maturité s'est appelé Platon est indéniable, mais l'origine de ce nom reste mystérieuse. Platon est un surnom de l'adjectif platys (πλατύς) "large". Même si Platon était un nom assez commun (31 occurrences connues d’Athènes seulement), non nommé dans la célèbre lignée familiale de Platon.(39) Les sources de Diogène Laërtius le défendent en affirmant que son dresseur, Ariston of Argos, dit "large" à cause de sa poitrine et de ses épaules, ou que Platon a tiré son nom de la largeur de son éloquent ou de son large front.(40)(41) Sénèque, tout en rappelant une leçon de morale sur les moyens de subsistance clairsemés, mentionne la signification du nom de Platon: "Son nom lui a été donné à cause de sa large poitrine".(42)

Son vrai nom aurait été Aristoclès (Ἀριστοκλῆς), qui signifie "bien nommé". Selon Diogène Laertius, il porte le nom de son grand-père, comme il était courant dans la communauté athénienne. Mais il n'y a qu'une seule recette pour un Aristocle, une des premières arches d'Athènes en 605/4 av. Il n'y a aucune trace d'une ligne d'Aristocle au père de Platon, Ariston. Récemment, un enseignant a affirmé que même le nom Aristocles pour Platon était une invention beaucoup plus tardive.(44) Un autre enseignant affirme toutefois qu '"il y a de bonnes raisons de ne pas rejeter (l'idée selon laquelle les Aristocles étaient le nom de Platon) comme une perception de leurs cinémas" et a noté à quel point ce récit est dans nos sources.(39)

éducation

De vieilles sources le décrivent comme un garçon léger mais modeste qui excellait dans ses études. Apulée nous apprend que Speusippus a loué la vivacité d'âme et la modestie de Platon en tant que garçon et le "premier fruit de la jeunesse infusé de travail acharné et d'amour pour les études".(45) Son père apporta tout ce qui était nécessaire pour donner à son fils une bonne éducation. Platon devait donc avoir appris la grammaire, la musique et la gymnastique par les plus éminents professeurs de son temps.(46) Platon invoque Damon plusieurs fois république. Platon a été un commutateur, et Dicaearchus est allé jusqu'à dire que Platon s'est battu dans les jeux isthmiens.(47) Platon avait également participé à des sujets philosophiques; Avant de rencontrer Socrate, il s'est familiarisé avec les doctrines de Cratyle et d'Héraklite.(48)

Ambroise croyait que Platon avait rencontré Jérémie en Égypte et avait été influencé par ses idées. Augustin a initialement accepté cette demande, mais l'a ensuite rejetée et a soutenu Ville de dieu que "Platon est né cent ans après la prophétie de Jérémie".(49)Travaux de chronologie en langue hébraïque(par qui?) affirmant que la dernière année prophétique de Jérémie était basée sur la chronologie hadoroth des douanes, datait de 411 av. (3350 HC) quand Platon était adolescent(F) et qu'il avait compris à l'origine Jérémie comme étant absurde.(50)(besoin de devis pour vérifier)

Plus tard la vie et la mort

Platon dans son académie, conçu pour un tableau du peintre suédois Carl Johan Wahlbom

Platon a peut-être voyagé en Italie, en Sicile, en Égypte et à Cyrène. De retour à Athènes à l'âge de quarante ans, Platon fonda l'une des plus anciennes écoles organisées connues de la civilisation occidentale sur un terrain du bosquet de Hecademus ou Academus. L'académie était une grande salle sur le terrain de six étages en dehors d'Athènes. Une histoire est que le nom de l'académie vient du vieux héros, Academus; Une autre histoire encore est que le nom vient d'un ancien propriétaire présumé de la parcelle, un citoyen athénien dont le nom était également diplômé. tandis qu'un autre compte est nommé d'après un membre de l'armée de Castor et Pollux, une arcade nommée Echedemus. L'Académie a fonctionné jusqu'à sa destruction par Lucius Cornelius Sulla en 84 av. De nombreux intellectuels ont été formés à l'académie, le plus important étant Aristote.

Tout au long de sa vie, Platon s'est impliqué dans la politique de la ville de Syracuse. Selon Diogène Laerttius, Platon a d'abord visité Syracuse sous le gouvernement de Dionysius. Au cours de ce premier voyage, le beau-frère de Dionysius, Dion de Syracuse, devint l'un des disciples de Platon, mais le tyran lui-même se tourna vers Platon. Platon a failli mourir, mais il a été vendu en esclavage. Alors Anniceris(G) acheté la liberté de Platon en vingt minutes,(57) et l'a renvoyé à la maison. Après la mort de Dionysius, selon Platon Septième lettre, Dion a demandé à Platon de retourner à Syracuse pour guider Dionysius II et le guider pour qu'il devienne philosophe. Dionysius II semblait accepter les enseignements de Platon, mais il se méfia de Dion, son oncle. Dionysius a expulsé Dion et a tenu Platon contre sa volonté. Finalement, Platon a quitté Syracuse. Dion reviendrait pour perturber Dionysius et régner Syracuse pendant un court instant avant d'être usurpé par Calippus, un collègue de Platon.

Selon Sénèque, Platon est décédé à l'âge de 81 ans le jour même de sa naissance.(58) Suda indique qu'il a vécu 82 ans(16), tandis que Neanthes a 84 ans.(17) Un certain nombre de sources ont donné un aperçu de son décès. Une histoire, basée sur un manuscrit mutilé, suggère que Platon est mort au lit tandis qu'une jeune fille thrace lui jouait de la flûte. Une autre tradition suggère que Platon est mort à la fête de mariage. Le récit est basé sur la référence de Diogène Laertius à un récit d’Hermippe, Alexandrie du troisième siècle. Selon Tertullian, Platon est simplement mort dans son sommeil.

Platon possédait une propriété à Iphistiadae, qu'il laissera à un jeune adolescent nommé Adeimantus, probablement un parent plus jeune, alors que Platon avait un frère aîné ou un oncle portant ce nom.

impacts

Pythagore

Buste de Pythagore à Rome.

Bien que Socrate ait influencé Platon directement en relation avec les dialogues, l'influence de Pythagore sur Platon, ou au sens large, semble avoir été importante pour les Pythagore, comme Archytas. Aristote a affirmé que la philosophie de Platon suivait de près les enseignements de Pythagore,(62) et Cicéron répète cette affirmation: "On dit que Platon a enseigné tout ce qui est pythagoricien."(63) Il est probable que les deux hommes ont été touchés par l'orphisme et croient tous deux en la métempsychose, la transmigration de l'âme.

Pythagore a insisté sur le fait que toutes les choses sont des nombres et que le cosmos provient de principes numériques. Il a introduit le concept de forme différent de la matière et que le monde physique est une imitation d'un monde mathématique éternel. Ces idées ont eu une grande influence sur Héraclite, Parménide et Platon.(64)

George Karamanolis le note

Numenius acceptait à la fois Pythagore et Platon comme les deux autorités qu’il fallait suivre en philosophie, mais il considérait que l’autorité de Platon était subordonnée à celle de Pythagore, qu’il considérait comme la source de toute philosophie vraie, y compris celle de Platon. Pour Numenius, Platon a écrit tant d’œuvres philosophiques alors que la vision de Pythagore n’était à l’origine que transmise oralement.(65)

Selon R. M. Hare, cette influence est composée de trois points:

  1. La République platonicienne pourrait être liée à l'idée d'une "société étroitement organisée de penseurs partageant les mêmes idées", telle que celle établie par Pythagore à Croton.
  2. L'idée que les mathématiques et la pensée abstraite en général constituent une base sûre pour la pensée philosophique, ainsi que "pour des articles essentiels sur la science et la moralité".
  3. Ils ont partagé une "approche mystérieuse de l'âme et de sa place dans le monde matériel".(66)(67)

Platon et Mathématiques

Platon a peut-être étudié avec le mathématicien Théodore de Cyrène et a un dialogue appelé dont le personnage principal est le mathématicien Théétète. Bien que n'étant pas un mathématicien, Platon était considéré comme un enseignant qualifié. Eudoxus de Cnide, le plus grand mathématicien de la Grèce classique, qui a largement contribué à ce que l'on trouve dans Euclide éléments, a été enseigné par Archytas et Platon. Platon a aidé à distinguer les mathématiques pures des mathématiques appliquées en élargissant le fossé entre «l'arithmétique», désormais appelée théorie des nombres, et la «logistique», désormais appelée arithmétique.(H)

Dans le dialogue Timée Platon associe chacun des quatre éléments classiques (sol, air, eau et feu) à un solide régulier (cube, octaèdre, icosaèdre et tétraèdre) en raison de leur forme, appelée solide platonique. Le cinquième solide, la substance, le dodécahron, devait être l'élément qui a construit le ciel.

Héraclite et Parménide

Les deux philosophes Héraclite et Parménide, qui suivent le chemin initié par des philosophes grecs présocratiques tels que Pythagore, s’écartent de la mythologie et commencent la tradition métaphysique qui a fortement influencé Platon et se poursuit aujourd’hui.(64)

Buste de Parménide de Velia

Les fragments survivants écrits par Héraclite suggèrent que toutes choses changent ou deviennent continuellement. Son image de la rivière aux eaux toujours changeantes est bien connue. Selon certaines traditions anciennes telles que Diogène Laertius, Platon a reçu ces idées par l'intermédiaire du disciple Cratyle d'Héraclite, qui était plus radical que le changement continu garantisse le scepticisme, car nous ne pouvons pas définir quelque chose qui n'a pas un caractère permanent.(69)

Parmenider a adopté une vision complètement opposée, en défendant l'idée d'un être inchangé et l'idée que le changement est une illusion.(64) John Palmer remarque "La distinction de Parménide entre les principales manières d'être et sa dérivation d'attributs qui doivent appartenir à ce qui doit être, tout simplement, le qualifie de fondateur de la métaphysique ou de l'ontologie en tant qu'examinateur , séparé de la théologie. "(70)

Ces idées de changement et de durée, ou pour devenir et être, ont influencé Platon dans la formulation de sa théorie de la forme.(69)

Le dialogue le plus autocritique de Platon est appelé Parménide, avec Parménide et son élève, Zénon, qui a suivi le déni de changement de Parménide, s'est fortement disputé avec leurs paradoxes pour nier l'existence du mouvement.

Platon sophiste Dialogue inclut un étranger éléatique, partisan de Parménide, pour faire échec à ses arguments contre Parménide. Dans le dialogue, Platon distingue les noms et les verbes, ce qui donne certains des traitements les plus anciens des sujets et des prédicats. Il affirme également que le mouvement et le repos sont tous deux "contre" les partisans de Parménide qui disent que le repos est, mais pas le mouvement.

Socrate

Platon était l'un des jeunes adeptes dévoués de Socrate. La relation précise entre Platon et Socrate reste un sujet de controverse parmi les scientifiques.

Platon ne parle jamais de sa propre voix dans ses dialogues et parle comme Socrate du tout lois. en Autres lettres, il est écrit: "Il n’ya pas d’écriture de Platon, mais ceux qui le disent maintenant sont ceux de Socrate qui deviennent beaux et nouveaux";(71) Si la lettre est Platon, la qualification finale semble remettre en question la fidélité historique du dialogue. En tout cas, Xénophon Articles mémorables et Aristophane les nuages Semble présenter un autre portrait de Socrate à partir d'une des peintures de Platon. Certains ont souligné le problème de prendre Socrate de Platon comme son porte-parole, compte tenu de la réputation d'ironie de Socrate et de la nature dramatique de la forme de dialogue.

Aristote attribue une autre doctrine aux formes de Platon et de Socrate.(73) Aristote suggère que l'idée de Socrate sur les formes puisse être découverte à travers l'exploration du monde naturel, par opposition aux formes de Platon qui existent au-delà et au-delà du spectre habituel de la compréhension humaine.

Dans les dialogues de Platon, Socrate comprend parfois qu'il faut soutenir un côté mystérieux, en discutant de la réincarnation et des religions mystérieuses, habituellement attribuées à Platon.(74) Quoi qu'il en soit, cette vision de Socrate ne peut être écartée car nous ne pouvons être certains des différences entre les vues de Platon et de Socrates. en Meno Platon se réfère aux mystères élusiniens et dit à Meno qu'il comprendrait mieux les réponses de Socrate s'il s'en tenait aux initiations la semaine prochaine. Il est possible que Platon et Socrate aient participé aux mystères élusiniens.

philosophie

meta ~~ POS = TRUNC

Dans les dialogues de Platon. Socrates et son entreprise de dissertations avaient quelque chose à dire sur de nombreux sujets, y compris plusieurs aspects de la métaphysique. Ceux-ci incluent la religion et la science, la nature humaine, l'amour et la sexualité. Plus qu'un dialogue, c'est un contraste avec la perception et la réalité, la nature et les coutumes, le corps et l'âme.

les formes

La "preuve de moulin à vent" du théorème de Pythagore trouvé dans Euclid éléments.

Le "platonisme" et la théorie des formes (ou idéation) nient la réalité du monde matériel, ne considérant qu'une image ou une copie du monde réel. La théorie des formes est introduite pour la première fois dans Phédon dialogue (aussi appelé Sur l'âme), où Socrate rembourse le pluralisme d’Anaxagoras, la réponse la plus populaire à Héraclite et à Parménide, tout en donnant «l’argument de la résistance» à l’appui de Forms

Selon cette théorie, il existe au moins deux mondes: le monde visible des objets concrets, la compréhension des sens qui change constamment et le monde immuable et invisible des formes ou des objets abstraits, compris par un fond pur (λογική). comme base, il est clair.

On peut également dire qu'il existe trois mondes, le monde apparent étant constitué à la fois d'objets matériels et d'images mentales, le "troisième règne" consistant en des formes. Ainsi, bien que ce soit le terme "idéalisme platonicien", il fait référence à des idées ou des formes platoniques, et non à une forme quelconque d'idéalisme platonique, une vision du dix-huitième siècle qui voit la question comme irréelle en faveur de l'esprit. Pour Platon, mais à la portée de l'esprit, seules les formes sont vraiment authentiques.

Platos Forms représente ainsi des types de choses, ainsi que des caractéristiques, des modèles et des relations que nous appelons objets. Tout comme des tables, des chaises et des voitures se réfèrent à des objets de ce monde, la tableness, la présidence et la courtoisie, ainsi que la justice, la vérité et la beauté se réfèrent à des objets d'un autre monde. L'un des exemples de formes les plus discutés par Platon était les vérités géométriques, telles que le théorème de Pythagore.

En d'autres termes, les formes sont des universaux donnés comme solution au problème des universaux, ou au problème de "L'un et le plus grand nombre", c'est-à-dire comment un prédicat "rouge" peut s'appliquer à de nombreux objets rouges. Pour Platon, c’est parce qu’il existe un objet abstrait ou une forme de rouge, la rougeur elle-même, où les choses les plus rouges "participent". Comme la solution de Platon est que les universaux sont des formes et que les formes sont authentiques, la philosophie de Platon s'appelle sans équivoque le réalisme platonique. Selon Aristote, l'argument le plus connu de Platon à l'appui de Forms était l'argument du "un sur plusieurs".

En plus d’être immuable, intemporel, immuable et multiple, le formulaire fournit également les définitions et la norme à laquelle toutes les occurrences sont mesurées. Dans les dialogues, Socrates s’interroge régulièrement sur l’importance d’un concept général, de définitions intentionnelles – Qu'est ce que X?par exemple, la justice, la vérité, la beauté; et critiquez ceux qui lui donnent plutôt des exemples spéciaux d'expansion, plutôt que la qualité partagée par tous les exemples.

Ainsi, c’est un monde de significations parfaites, éternelles et inchangées de prédicats, de formes, qui existent dans le domaine de l’espace et du temps; et le monde sensible imparfait de l'être, en quelque sorte dans un état entre l'être et rien, participant aux qualités de la forme, et en est son immédiateté.

l'âme

Platon prône une croyance en l'immortalité de l'âme et plusieurs dialogues se terminent par de longs discours décrivant l'au-delà. en Timée, Socrate localise les parties de l’âme dans le corps humain: La cause réside dans la tête, l’esprit du tiers supérieur du torse et l’appétit au milieu du torse, jusqu’au nombril.(75)

épistémologie

Socrate discute également de plusieurs aspects de l'épistémologie en tant que sagesse. Plus qu'un dialogue, contraste de la connaissance et du sens. L'épistémologie de Platon implique Socrate qui affirme que la connaissance n'est pas empirique et qu'elle provient de la vision divine. Les formulaires sont également responsables de la connaissance ou de la sécurité, et sont saisis par la raison pure.

Dans plusieurs dialogues, Socrate inverse l’intuition de l’homme du commun sur ce qui est connu et ce qui est réel. La réalité n'est pas disponible pour ceux qui utilisent leurs sens. Socrate dit que les yeux sont aveugles. Socrate méprise tous ceux qui croient que quelque chose doit être saisi entre leurs mains pour être réel. en Théétète, il dit que ces personnes sont eu amousoi (εὖ ἄμουσοι), expression qui signifie littéralement "heureusement sans les souris".(77) En d'autres termes, ces personnes sont volontairement ignorantes, vivent sans inspiration divine et n'ont pas accès à une vision plus profonde de la réalité.

Dans les dialogues de Platon, Socrate insiste toujours sur son ignorance et son humilité, pour qu'il ne sache rien, la soi-disant ironie socratique. Plusieurs dialogues réfutent un certain nombre de points de vue, mais n'offrent aucune position positive par eux-mêmes et aboutissent à une aporie.

souvenir

Dans plusieurs dialogues de Platon, Socrate indique que la connaissance revient à rappeler l'État avant sa naissance, et non à l'observation ou à l'étude. Socrate se plaint régulièrement d'oubli en avouant ensuite sa propre ignorance. en Meno, Socrate utilise un exemple géométrique pour expliquer la notion de Platon selon laquelle la connaissance dans ce dernier sens est acquise par rappel. Socrate insiste sur le fait qu'une construction géométrique a été réalisée par un garçon esclave qui, autrement, ne pourrait pas le savoir (à cause du manque d'éducation de ce dernier). La connaissance doit être présente, conclut Socrate, sous une forme éternelle et non expérimentale.

Dans d'autres dialogues, il sophiste, homme d'État, républiqueet Parménide, Platon lui-même associe le savoir à la peur des formes infinies et de leurs relations mutuelles (comme il appelle "l'expertise" en dialectique), y compris par le biais de processus de collection et division. Plus explicitement, Platon lui-même affirme Timée cette connaissance est toujours proportionnelle au domaine à partir duquel elle est obtenue. En d’autres termes, si vous obtenez un compte-rendu de quelque chose d’expérimental, le monde de l’invention étant en pleine mutation, les vues obtenues ne seront que des opinions. Et les opinions se caractérisent par un manque de nécessité et de stabilité. D'autre part, si l'on détourne un compte de quelque chose en utilisant les formes non sensibles, parce que ces formes sont inchangées, le compte en est également dérivé. Il est nécessaire de comprendre la forme pour acquérir une connaissance de la théorie de Platon dans Théétète et Meno. En fait, la compréhension des formulaires est basée sur le "compte" requis pour la justification, fournissant des connaissances de base qui en elles-mêmes ne nécessitent pas de compte et évitent donc une régression infinie.

Juste vraie foi

Un graphique de Venn illustrant la théorie classique de la connaissance.

Beaucoup ont interprété Platon comme disant, même après avoir été le premier à écrire, que la connaissance est justifiée par la vraie foi, une perception influente qui a éclairé les développements futurs de l'épistémologie. Cette interprétation est en partie basée sur une lecture de Théétète où Platon soutient que la connaissance ne diffère de la vraie foi que par celui qui a un "compte" de l'objet de sa vraie foi.(83) Et cette théorie peut encore être vu dans Meno, où il est suggéré que la vraie foi puisse être augmentée au niveau de la connaissance si elle est liée par un compte rendu de la question du "pourquoi" est l’objet de la vraie foi.(84)

Plusieurs années plus tard, Edmund Gettier a montré les fameux problèmes de la connaissance juste et juste de la connaissance. Le fait que la théorie moderne de la vraie foi en tant que connaissance adressée par Gettier soit semblable à Platon est accepté par certains spécialistes, mais rejeté par d'autres. Platon lui-même a également identifié des problèmes avec la vraie foi justifiée définition en Théétète, concluez que la justification (ou un "compte") nécessitera la connaissance différence, ce qui signifie que la définition de la connaissance est circulaire.(87)

éthique

Plusieurs dialogues abordent l'éthique, notamment la vertu et le vice, la joie et la douleur, le crime et le châtiment, la justice et la médecine. Platon voit le "bien" comme la forme suprême, qui existe même "au-delà de l'être".

Socrate prêcha un intellectualisme moral, affirmant que personne n'avait intentionnellement de mauvais sens et qu'il savait ce qui est bien pour faire le bien. Cette connaissance est la vertu. en Protagoras Au dialogue, on prétend que la vertu est innée et ne peut être apprise.

Socrates présente le fameux dilemme Euthyphro en dialogue avec le même nom.

politique

Les dialogues abordent également la politique. Certaines des doctrines les plus connues de Platon sont dans république ainsi que dans lois et homme d'État. Parce que ces doctrines ne parlent pas directement de Platon et varient d'un dialogue à l'autre, on ne peut pas immédiatement supposer qu'elles représentent les propres vues de Platon.

Socrate affirme que la société a une structure de classe semblable à un arbre qui correspond à l'appétit / à l'esprit / à la structure de base de l'âme individuelle. L'appétit / esprit / raison est analogue à la distribution de la société.

  • productif (Ouvriers) – Ouvriers, menuisiers, plombiers, maçons, marchands, agriculteurs, éleveurs, etc. Ils correspondent à la partie "appétit" de l'âme.
  • protecteur (Guerriers ou gardiens) – ceux qui sont aventureux, forts et courageux; dans les forces armées. Celles-ci correspondent à la partie "spirituelle" de l'âme.
  • gouvernement (Rulers ou Philosopher Kings) – ceux qui sont intelligents, rationnels, maîtrisés, amoureux de la sagesse, aptes à prendre des décisions pour la société. Celles-ci correspondent à la partie "raison" de l'âme et sont très peu nombreuses.

Selon ce modèle, les principes de la démocratie athénienne (qui existaient à son époque) sont rejetés car seuls quelques-uns sont capables de gouverner. Au lieu de rhétorique et de persuasion, Socrate dit que la raison et la sagesse devraient régner. Comme le dit Socrate:

"Jusqu'à ce que les philosophes gouvernent en tant que rois ou que l'on appelle maintenant rois et chefs, philosophes sincèrement et adéquatement, c'est-à-dire jusqu'à ce que le pouvoir politique et la philosophie coïncident complètement, alors que les nombreuses natures qui sont actuellement en cours sont les seules à être totalement empêchées. Ainsi, les villes ne se reposeront pas du mal, … et je ne crois pas non plus que l'humanité.(90)

Socrate décrit ces "rois philosophiques" comme "ceux qui aiment la vision de la vérité"(91) et soutient l'idée par analogie avec un capitaine et son navire ou un médecin et ses médicaments. Selon lui, la voile et la santé ne sont pas des choses que tout le monde est qualifié pour exercer par nature. Une grande partie de cela république Ensuite, il aborde la manière dont le système d’apprentissage doit être mis en place pour produire ces rois philosophiques.

De plus, la ville idéale est utilisée comme image pour éclairer la condition de son âme, ou sa volonté, la raison et le désir combinés dans le corps humain. Socrates tente de brosser un tableau d'un être humain correctement ordonné. Il décrit ensuite différents types de personnes pouvant être observées, des tyrans aux amoureux de l'argent dans différents types de villes. La ville idéale n'est pas promue mais utilisée uniquement pour élargir les différentes personnes et leur état d'âme. Cependant, l'image royale du philosophe a été utilisée par beaucoup après Platon pour justifier leurs convictions politiques personnelles. L'âme philosophique selon Socrate a la raison, la volonté et le désir unis en bonne harmonie. Un philosophe a l'amour modéré de la sagesse et le courage d'agir selon la sagesse. La sagesse est la connaissance du bon ou du juste rapport entre tout ce qui existe.

Pour les États et les dirigeants, Socrates demande ce qui est préférable: une mauvaise démocratie ou un pays dirigé par un tyran. Il fait valoir qu'il vaut mieux être gouverné par un mauvais tyran que par une mauvaise démocratie (puisque tout le monde est maintenant responsable de ces actes, plutôt que par un individu qui commet de nombreuses mauvaises actions.) république comme Socrate décrit l'incident du mythe à bord d'un navire.(92) Socrates suggère que l'équipage du navire devrait être en ligne avec le gouvernement démocratique de nombreux et le capitaine, même s'il est gêné par les fléaux, le tyran. La description que fait Socrate de cet événement est parallèle à la démocratie dans l'État et aux problèmes inhérents qui se posent.

Selon Socrates, un État composé de différents types d'âmes descend d'une aristocratie (gouvernance des meilleurs) à une timocratie (gouvernement du vénérable), puis à une oligarchie (la règle du petit nombre), puis à une démocratie (gouverner par le peuple), et enfin la tyrannie (règle d'une personne, gouverner par un tyran). L'aristocratie au sens du gouvernement (politeia) est racontée dans la République de Platon. Ce régime est dirigé par un roi philosophe et repose donc sur la sagesse et la raison.

L'état aristocratique et la nature de l'homme sont l'objet des analyses de Platon à travers une grande partie de la république, par opposition aux quatre autres types d’États / hommes, dont il sera question plus loin dans ses travaux. Dans le livre VIII, Socrate énonce, dans l'ordre des quatre autres sociétés imparfaites, une description de la structure et du caractère individuel de l'État. In timocracy the ruling class is made up primarily of those with a warrior-like character.(94) Oligarchy is made up of a society in which wealth is the criterion of merit and the wealthy are in control.(95) In democracy, the state bears resemblance to ancient Athens with traits such as equality of political opportunity and freedom for the individual to do as he likes.(96) Democracy then degenerates into tyranny from the conflict of rich and poor. It is characterized by an undisciplined society existing in chaos, where the tyrant rises as popular champion leading to the formation of his private army and the growth of oppression.(97)

Art and poetry

Several dialogues tackle questions about art, including rhetoric and rhapsody. Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, and is not rational. He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness (drunkenness, eroticism, and dreaming) in the Phaedrus,(99) and yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetry, and laughter as well. en Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literature that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted.

Unwritten doctrines

For a long time, Plato's unwritten doctrines(100)(101)(102) had been controversial. Many modern books on Plato seem to diminish its importance; nevertheless, the first important witness who mentions its existence is Aristotle, who in his Physics writes: "It is true, indeed, that the account he gives there (i.e. in Timée) of the participant is different from what he says in his so-called unwritten teachings (ἄγραφα δόγματα)."(103) The term "ἄγραφα δόγματα" literally means unwritten doctrines and it stands for the most fundamental metaphysical teaching of Plato, which he disclosed only orally, and some say only to his most trusted fellows, and which he may have kept secret from the public. The importance of the unwritten doctrines does not seem to have been seriously questioned before the 19th century.

A reason for not revealing it to everyone is partially discussed in Phaedrus where Plato criticizes the written transmission of knowledge as faulty, favoring instead the spoken logos: "he who has knowledge of the just and the good and beautiful … will not, when in earnest, write them in ink, sowing them through a pen with words, which cannot defend themselves by argument and cannot teach the truth effectually."(104) The same argument is repeated in Plato's Seventh Letter: "every serious man in dealing with really serious subjects carefully avoids writing."(105) In the same letter he writes: "I can certainly declare concerning all these writers who claim to know the subjects that I seriously study … there does not exist, nor will there ever exist, any treatise of mine dealing therewith."(106) Such secrecy is necessary in order not "to expose them to unseemly and degrading treatment".(107)

It is, however, said that Plato once disclosed this knowledge to the public in his lecture On the Good (Περὶ τἀγαθοῦ), in which the Good (τὸ ἀγαθόν) is identified with the One (the Unity, τὸ ἕν), the fundamental ontological principle. The content of this lecture has been transmitted by several witnesses. Aristoxenus describes the event in the following words: "Each came expecting to learn something about the things that are generally considered good for men, such as wealth, good health, physical strength, and altogether a kind of wonderful happiness. But when the mathematical demonstrations came, including numbers, geometrical figures and astronomy, and finally the statement Good is One seemed to them, I imagine, utterly unexpected and strange; hence some belittled the matter, while others rejected it."(108)Simplicius quotes Alexander of Aphrodisias, who states that "according to Plato, the first principles of everything, including the Forms themselves are One and Indefinite Duality (ἡ ἀόριστος δυάς), which he called Large and Small (τὸ μέγα καὶ τὸ μικρόν)", and Simplicius reports as well that "one might also learn this from Speusippus and Xenocrates and the others who were present at Plato's lecture on the Good".(44)

Their account is in full agreement with Aristotle's description of Plato's metaphysical doctrine. en Metaphysics he writes: "Now since the Forms are the causes of everything else, he (i.e. Plato) supposed that their elements are the elements of all things. Accordingly the material principle is the Great and Small (i.e. the Dyad), and the essence is the One (τὸ ἕν), since the numbers are derived from the Great and Small by participation in the One".(109) "From this account it is clear that he only employed two causes: that of the essence, and the material cause; for the Forms are the cause of the essence in everything else, and the One is the cause of it in the Forms. He also tells us what the material substrate is of which the Forms are predicated in the case of sensible things, and the One in that of the Forms—that it is this the duality (the Dyad, ἡ δυάς), the Great and Small (τὸ μέγα καὶ τὸ μικρόν). Further, he assigned to these two elements respectively the causation of good and of evil".(110)

The most important aspect of this interpretation of Plato's metaphysics is the continuity between his teaching and the Neoplatonic interpretation of Plotinus(i) or Ficino(j) which has been considered erroneous by many but may in fact have been directly influenced by oral transmission of Plato's doctrine. A modern scholar who recognized the importance of the unwritten doctrine of Plato was Heinrich Gomperz who described it in his speech during the 7th International Congress of Philosophy in 1930. All the sources related to the ἄγραφα δόγματα have been collected by Konrad Gaiser and published as Testimonia Platonica. These sources have subsequently been interpreted by scholars from the German Tübingen School of interpretation such as Hans Joachim Krämer or Thomas A. Szlezák.(k)

Themes of Plato's dialogues

Trial of Socrates

The trial of Socrates and his death sentence is the central, unifying event of Plato's dialogues. It is relayed in the dialogues Apology, Critoet Phaedo. Apology is Socrates' defense speech, and Crito et Phaedo take place in prison after the conviction.

Apology is among the most frequently read of Plato's works. en Apology, Socrates tries to dismiss rumors that he is a sophist and defends himself against charges of disbelief in the gods and corruption of the young. Socrates insists that long-standing slander will be the real cause of his demise, and says the legal charges are essentially false. Socrates famously denies being wise, and explains how his life as a philosopher was launched by the Oracle at Delphi. He says that his quest to resolve the riddle of the oracle put him at odds with his fellow man, and that this is the reason he has been mistaken for a menace to the city-state of Athens.

en Apology, Socrates is presented as mentioning Plato by name as one of those youths close enough to him to have been corrupted, if he were in fact guilty of corrupting the youth, and questioning why their fathers and brothers did not step forward to testify against him if he was indeed guilty of such a crime.(113) Later, Plato is mentioned along with Crito, Critobolus, and Apollodorus as offering to pay a fine of 30 minas on Socrates' behalf, in lieu of the death penalty proposed by Meletus.(114) en Phaedo, the title character lists those who were in attendance at the prison on Socrates' last day, explaining Plato's absence by saying, "Plato was ill".(115)

The trial in other dialogues

If Plato's important dialogues do not refer to Socrates' execution explicitly, they allude to it, or use characters or themes that play a part in it. Five dialogues foreshadow the trial: In the Theaetetus et Euthyphro Socrates tells people that he is about to face corruption charges.(116)(117) en Meno, one of the men who brings legal charges against Socrates, Anytus, warns him about the trouble he may get into if he does not stop criticizing important people.(118) en Gorgias, Socrates says that his trial will be like a doctor prosecuted by a cook who asks a jury of children to choose between the doctor's bitter medicine and the cook's tasty treats.(119) en Republic, Socrates explains why an enlightened man (presumably himself) will stumble in a courtroom situation.(120) Plato's support of aristocracy and distrust of democracy is also taken to be partly rooted in a democracy having killed Socrates. en Protagoras, Socrates is a guest at the home of Callias, son of Hipponicus, a man whom Socrates disparages in the Apology as having wasted a great amount of money on sophists' fees.

Two other important dialogues, the Symposium et Phaedrus, are linked to the main storyline by characters. en Apology, Socrates says Aristophanes slandered him in a comic play, and blames him for causing his bad reputation, and ultimately, his death.(121) en Symposium, the two of them are drinking together with other friends. The character Phaedrus is linked to the main story line by character (Phaedrus is also a participant in the Symposium et Protagoras) and by theme (the philosopher as divine emissary, etc.) The Protagoras is also strongly linked to the Symposium by characters: all of the formal speakers at the Symposium (with the exception of Aristophanes) are present at the home of Callias in that dialogue. Charmides and his guardian Critias are present for the discussion in the Protagoras. Examples of characters crossing between dialogues can be further multiplied. ils Protagoras contains the largest gathering of Socratic associates.

In the dialogues Plato is most celebrated and admired for, Socrates is concerned with human and political virtue, has a distinctive personality, and friends and enemies who "travel" with him from dialogue to dialogue. This is not to say that Socrates is consistent: a man who is his friend in one dialogue may be an adversary or subject of his mockery in another. For example, Socrates praises the wisdom of Euthyphro many times in the Cratylus, but makes him look like a fool in the Euthyphro. He disparages sophists generally, and Prodicus specifically in the Apology, whom he also slyly jabs in the Cratylus for charging the hefty fee of fifty drachmas for a course on language and grammar. However, Socrates tells Theaetetus in his namesake dialogue that he admires Prodicus and has directed many pupils to him. Socrates' ideas are also not consistent within or between or among dialogues.

Allegories

Mythos et logos are terms that evolved along classical Greece history. In the times of Homer and Hesiod (8th century BC) they were essentially synonyms, and contained the meaning of 'tale' or 'history'. Later came historians like Herodotus and Thucydides, as well as philosophers like Heraclitus and Parmenides and other Presocratics who introduced a distinction between both terms; mythos became more a nonverifiable account, and logos a rational account.(122) It may seem that Plato, being a disciple of Socrates and a strong partisan of philosophy based on logos, should have avoided the use of myth-telling. Instead he made an abundant use of it. This fact has produced analytical and interpretative work, in order to clarify the reasons and purposes for that use.

Plato, in general, distinguished between three types of myth.(l) First there were the false myths, like those based on stories of gods subject to passions and sufferings, because reason teaches that God is perfect. Then came the myths based on true reasoning, and therefore also true. Finally there were those non verifiable because beyond of human reason, but containing some truth in them. Regarding the subjects of Plato's myths they are of two types, those dealing with the origin of the universe, and those about morals and the origin and fate of the soul.(123)

It is generally agreed that the main purpose for Plato in using myths was didactic. He considered that only a few people were capable or interested in following a reasoned philosophical discourse, but men in general are attracted by stories and tales. Consequently, then, he used the myth to convey the conclusions of the philosophical reasoning. Some of Plato's myths were based in traditional ones, others were modifications of them, and finally he also invented altogether new myths.(124) Notable examples include the story of Atlantis, the Myth of Er, and the Allegory of the Cave.

The Cave

The theory of Forms is most famously captured in his Allegory of the Cave, and more explicitly in his analogy of the sun and the divided line. The Allegory of the Cave is a paradoxical analogy wherein Socrates argues that the invisible world is the most intelligible ('noeton') and that the visible world ((h)oraton) is the least knowable, and the most obscure.

Socrates says in the Republic that people who take the sun-lit world of the senses to be good and real are living pitifully in a den of evil and ignorance. Socrates admits that few climb out of the den, or cave of ignorance, and those who do, not only have a terrible struggle to attain the heights, but when they go back down for a visit or to help other people up, they find themselves objects of scorn and ridicule.

According to Socrates, physical objects and physical events are "shadows" of their ideal or perfect forms, and exist only to the extent that they instantiate the perfect versions of themselves. Just as shadows are temporary, inconsequential epiphenomena produced by physical objects, physical objects are themselves fleeting phenomena caused by more substantial causes, the ideals of which they are mere instances. For example, Socrates thinks that perfect justice exists (although it is not clear where) and his own trial would be a cheap copy of it.

The Allegory of the Cave is intimately connected to his political ideology, that only people who have climbed out of the cave and cast their eyes on a vision of goodness are fit to rule. Socrates claims that the enlightened men of society must be forced from their divine contemplation and be compelled to run the city according to their lofty insights. Thus is born the idea of the "philosopher-king", the wise person who accepts the power thrust upon him by the people who are wise enough to choose a good master. This is the main thesis of Socrates in the Republic, that the most wisdom the masses can muster is the wise choice of a ruler.(125)

Ring of Gyges

A ring which could make one invisible, the Ring of Gyges is considered in the Republic for its ethical consequences.

Chariot

He also compares the soul to a chariot.

Dialectic

Socrates employs a dialectic method which proceeds by questioning. The role of dialectic in Plato's thought is contested but there are two main interpretations: a type of reasoning and a method of intuition.Simon Blackburn adopts the first, saying that Plato's dialectic is "the process of eliciting the truth by means of questions aimed at opening out what is already implicitly known, or at exposing the contradictions and muddles of an opponent's position." A similar interpretation has been put forth by Louis Hartz, who suggests that elements of the dialectic are borrowed from Hegel.(127) According to this view, opposing arguments improve upon each other, and prevailing opinion is shaped by the synthesis of many conflicting ideas over time. Each new idea exposes a flaw in the accepted model, and the epistemological substance of the debate continually approaches the truth. Hartz's is a teleological interpretation at the core, in which philosophers will ultimately exhaust the available body of knowledge and thus reach "the end of history." Karl Popper, on the other hand, claims that dialectic is the art of intuition for "visualising the divine originals, the Forms or Ideas, of unveiling the Great Mystery behind the common man's everyday world of appearances."

Family

Plato often discusses the father-son relationship and the question of whether a father's interest in his sons has much to do with how well his sons turn out. In ancient Athens, a boy was socially located by his family identity, and Plato often refers to his characters in terms of their paternal and fraternal relationships. Socrates was not a family man, and saw himself as the son of his mother, who was apparently a midwife. A divine fatalist, Socrates mocks men who spent exorbitant fees on tutors and trainers for their sons, and repeatedly ventures the idea that good character is a gift from the gods. Plato's dialogue Crito reminds Socrates that orphans are at the mercy of chance, but Socrates is unconcerned. en Theaetetus, he is found recruiting as a disciple a young man whose inheritance has been squandered. Socrates twice compares the relationship of the older man and his boy lover to the father-son relationship,(129)(130) and in the Phaedo, Socrates' disciples, towards whom he displays more concern than his biological sons, say they will feel "fatherless" when he is gone.

Though Plato agreed with Aristotle that women were inferior to men, he thought because of this women needed an education. Plato thought weak men who live poor lives would be reincarnated as women. "Humans have a twofold nature, the superior kind should be such as would from then on be called "man".'

Narration

Plato never presents himself as a participant in any of the dialogues, and with the exception of the Apology, there is no suggestion that he heard any of the dialogues firsthand. Some dialogues have no narrator but have a pure "dramatic" form (examples: Meno, Gorgias, Phaedrus, Crito, Euthyphro), some dialogues are narrated by Socrates, wherein he speaks in first person (examples: Lysis, Charmides, Republic). One dialogue, Protagoras, begins in dramatic form but quickly proceeds to Socrates' narration of a conversation he had previously with the sophist for whom the dialogue is named; this narration continues uninterrupted till the dialogue's end.

Two dialogues Phaedo et Symposium also begin in dramatic form but then proceed to virtually uninterrupted narration by followers of Socrates. Phaedo, an account of Socrates' final conversation and hemlock drinking, is narrated by Phaedo to Echecrates in a foreign city not long after the execution took place.(m) ils Symposium is narrated by Apollodorus, a Socratic disciple, apparently to Glaucon. Apollodorus assures his listener that he is recounting the story, which took place when he himself was an infant, not from his own memory, but as remembered by Aristodemus, who told him the story years ago.

ils Theaetetus is a peculiar case: a dialogue in dramatic form embedded within another dialogue in dramatic form. In the beginning of the Theaetetus,(132)Euclides says that he compiled the conversation from notes he took based on what Socrates told him of his conversation with the title character. The rest of the Theaetetus is presented as a "book" written in dramatic form and read by one of Euclides' slaves.(133) Some scholars take this as an indication that Plato had by this date wearied of the narrated form. With the exception of the Theaetetus, Plato gives no explicit indication as to how these orally transmitted conversations came to be written down.

History of Plato's dialogues

Volume 3, pp. 32–33, of the 1578 Stephanus edition of Plato, showing a passage of Timée with the Latin translation and notes of Jean de Serres

Thirty-five dialogues and thirteen letters (the Epistles) have traditionally been ascribed to Plato, though modern scholarship doubts the authenticity of at least some of these. Plato's writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato's texts.

The usual system for making unique references to sections of the text by Plato derives from a 16th-century edition of Plato's works by Henricus Stephanus known as Stephanus pagination.

One tradition regarding the arrangement of Plato's texts is according to tetralogies. This scheme is ascribed by Diogenes Laërtius to an ancient scholar and court astrologer to Tiberius named Thrasyllus.

Chronology

No one knows the exact order Plato's dialogues were written in, nor the extent to which some might have been later revised and rewritten. The works are usually grouped into Early (sometimes by some into Transitional) Middleet Late period.(135)(136) This choice to group chronologically is thought worthy of criticism by some (Cooper et al)(137) given that it is recognized that there is no absolute agreement as to the true chronology, since the facts of the temporal order of writing are not confidently ascertained.(138) Chronology was not a consideration in ancient times, in that groupings of this nature are virtually absent (Tarrant) in the extant writings of ancient Platonists.(139)

Whereas those classified as "early dialogues" often conclude in aporia, the so-called "middle dialogues" provide more clearly stated positive teachings that are often ascribed to Plato such as the theory of Forms. The remaining dialogues are classified as "late" and are generally agreed to be difficult and challenging pieces of philosophy. This grouping is the only one proven by stylometric analysis. Among those who classify the dialogues into periods of composition, Socrates figures in all of the "early dialogues" and they are considered the most faithful representations of the historical Socrates.

The following represents one relatively common division.(142) It should, however, be kept in mind that many of the positions in the ordering are still highly disputed, and also that the very notion that Plato's dialogues can or should be "ordered" is by no means universally accepted. Increasingly in the most recent Plato scholarship, writers are skeptical of the notion that the order of Plato's writings can be established with any precision,(143) though Plato's works are still often characterized as falling at least roughly into three groups.(144)

Early: Apology, Charmides, Crito, Euthyphro, Gorgias, (Lesser) Hippias (minor), (Greater) Hippias (major), Ion, Laches, Lysis, Protagoras

Middle: Cratylus, Euthydemus, Meno, Parmenides, Phaedo, Phaedrus, Republic, Symposium, Theaetetus

Late: Critias, Sophist, Statesman / Politicus, Timée, Philebus, Laws.

A significant distinction of the early Plato and the later Plato has been offered by scholars such as E.R. Dodds and has been summarized by Harold Bloom in his book titled Agon: "E.R. Dodds is the classical scholar whose writings most illuminated the Hellenic descent (in) The Greeks and the Irrational … In his chapter on Plato and the Irrational Soul … Dodds traces Plato's spiritual evolution from the pure rationalist of the Protagoras to the transcendental psychologist, influenced by the Pythagoreans and Orphics, of the later works culminating in the Laws."

Lewis Campbell was the first to make exhaustive use of stylometry to prove objectively that the Critias, Timée, Laws, Philebus, Sophistet Statesman were all clustered together as a group, while the Parmenides, Phaedrus, Republicet Theaetetus belong to a separate group, which must be earlier (given Aristotle's statement in his Politics(147) that the Laws was written after the Republic; cf. Diogenes Laërtius Lives 3.37). What is remarkable about Campbell's conclusions is that, in spite of all the stylometric studies that have been conducted since his time, perhaps the only chronological fact about Plato's works that can now be said to be påvist by stylometry is the fact that Critias, Timée, Laws, Philebus, Sophistet Statesman are the latest of Plato's dialogues, the others earlier.

Protagoras is often considered one of the last of the "early dialogues". Three dialogues are often considered "transitional" or "pre-middle": Euthydemus, Gorgiaset Meno. Proponents of dividing the dialogues into periods often consider the Parmenides et Theaetetus to come late in the middle period and be transitional to the next, as they seem to treat the theory of Forms critically (Parmenides) or only indirectly (Theaetetus).(148) Ritter's stylometric analysis places Phaedrus as probably after Theaetetus et Parmenides,(149) although it does not relate to the theory of Forms in the same way. The first book of the Republic is often thought to have been written significantly earlier than the rest of the work, although possibly having undergone revisions when the later books were attached to it.(148)

While looked to for Plato's "mature" answers to the questions posed by his earlier works, those answers are difficult to discern. Some scholars indicate that the theory of Forms is absent from the late dialogues, its having been refuted in the Parmenides, but there isn't total consensus that the Parmenides actually refutes the theory of Forms.

Writings of doubted authenticity

Jowett mentions in his Appendix to Menexenus, that works which bore the character of a writer were attributed to that writer even when the actual author was unknown.(151)

For below:

(*) if there is no consensus among scholars as to whether Plato is the author, and (‡) if most scholars agree that Plato is pas the author of the work.(152)

First Alcibiades (*), Second Alcibiades (‡), Clitophon (*), Epinomis (‡), Epistles (*), Hipparchus (‡), Menexenus (*), Minos (‡), (Rival) Lovers (‡), Theages (‡)

Spurious writings

The following works were transmitted under Plato's name, most of them already considered spurious in antiquity, and so were not included by Thrasyllus in his tetralogical arrangement. These works are labelled as Notheuomenoi ("spurious") or Apocrypha.

Textual sources and history

First page of the Euthyphro, from the Clarke Plato (Codex Oxoniensis Clarkianus 39), 895 AD. The text is Greek minuscule.

Some 250 known manuscripts of Plato survive. The texts of Plato as received today apparently represent the complete written philosophical work of Plato and are generally good by the standards of textual criticism.(154) No modern edition of Plato in the original Greek represents a single source, but rather it is reconstructed from multiple sources which are compared with each other. These sources are medieval manuscripts written on vellum (mainly from 9th to 13th century AD Byzantium), papyri (mainly from late antiquity in Egypt), and from the independent testimonia of other authors who quote various segments of the works (which come from a variety of sources). The text as presented is usually not much different from what appears in the Byzantine manuscripts, and papyri and testimonia just confirm the manuscript tradition. In some editions however the readings in the papyri or testimonia are favoured in some places by the editing critic of the text. Reviewing editions of papyri for the Republic in 1987, Slings suggests that the use of papyri is hampered due to some poor editing practices.

In the first century AD, Thrasyllus of Mendes had compiled and published the works of Plato in the original Greek, both genuine and spurious. While it has not survived to the present day, all the extant medieval Greek manuscripts are based on his edition.

The oldest surviving complete manuscript for many of the dialogues is the Clarke Plato (Codex Oxoniensis Clarkianus 39, or Codex Boleianus MS E.D. Clarke 39), which was written in Constantinople in 895 and acquired by Oxford University in 1809.(157) The Clarke is given the siglum B in modern editions. B contains the first six tetralogies and is described internally as being written by "John the Calligrapher" on behalf of Arethas of Caesarea. It appears to have undergone corrections by Arethas himself. For the last two tetralogies and the apocrypha, the oldest surviving complete manuscript is Codex Parisinus graecus 1807, designated FR, which was written nearly contemporaneously to B, circa 900 AD.FR must be a copy of the edition edited by the patriarch, Photios, teacher of Arethas.(160)(161)(162)FR probably had an initial volume containing the first 7 tetralogies which is now lost, but of which a copy was made, Codex Venetus append. class. 4, 1, which has the siglum T. The oldest manuscript for the seventh tetralogy is Codex Vindobonensis 54. suppl. phil. Gr. 7, with siglum W, with a supposed date in the twelfth century. In total there are fifty-one such Byzantine manuscripts known, while others may yet be found.

To help establish the text, the older evidence of papyri and the independent evidence of the testimony of commentators and other authors (i.e., those who quote and refer to an old text of Plato which is no longer extant) are also used. Many papyri which contain fragments of Plato's texts are among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri. The 2003 Oxford Classical Texts edition by Slings even cites the Coptic translation of a fragment of the Republic in the Nag Hammadi library as evidence. Important authors for testimony include Olympiodorus the Younger, Plutarch, Proclus, Iamblichus, Eusebius, and Stobaeus.

During the early Renaissance, the Greek language and, along with it, Plato's texts were reintroduced to Western Europe by Byzantine scholars. In September or October 1484 Filippo Valori and Francesco Berlinghieri printed 1025 copies of Ficino's translation, using the printing press at the Dominican convent S.Jacopo di Ripoli.(166) Cosimo had been influenced toward studying Plato by the many Byzantine Platonists in Florence during his day, including George Gemistus Plethon.

The 1578 edition(168) of Plato's complete works published by Henricus Stephanus (Henri Estienne) in Geneva also included parallel Latin translation and running commentary by Joannes Serranus (Jean de Serres). It was this edition which established standard Stephanus pagination, still in use today.

Modern editions

The Oxford Classical Texts offers the current standard complete Greek text of Plato's complete works. In five volumes edited by John Burnet, its first edition was published 1900-1907, and it is still available from the publisher, having last been printed in 1993.(171) The second edition is still in progress with only the first volume, printed in 1995, and the Republic, printed in 2003, available. ils Cambridge Greek and Latin Texts et Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries series includes Greek editions of the Protagoras, Symposium, Phaedrus, Alcibiadeset Clitophon, with English philological, literary, and, to an extent, philosophical commentary.(172)(173) One distinguished edition of the Greek text is E. R. Dodds' of the Gorgias, which includes extensive English commentary.

The modern standard complete English edition is the 1997 Hackett Plato, Complete Works, edited by John M. Cooper.(177) For many of these translations Hackett offers separate volumes which include more by way of commentary, notes, and introductory material. There is also the Clarendon Plato Series by Oxford University Press which offers English translations and thorough philosophical commentary by leading scholars on a few of Plato's works, including John McDowell's version of the Theaetetus.(178) Cornell University Press has also begun the Agora series of English translations of classical and medieval philosophical texts, including a few of Plato's.(179)

Criticism

Despite Plato's prominence as a philosopher, he is not without criticism. The most famous criticism of Platonism is the Third Man Argument. Plato actually considered this objection with "large" rather than man in the Parmenides dialogue.

Many recent philosophers have diverged from what some would describe as the ontological models and moral ideals characteristic of traditional Platonism. A number of these postmodern philosophers have thus appeared to disparage Platonism from more or less informed perspectives. Friedrich Nietzsche notoriously attacked Plato's "idea of the good itself" along with many fundamentals of Christian morality, which he interpreted as "Platonism for the masses" in one of his most important works, Beyond Good and Evil (1886). Martin Heidegger argued against Plato's alleged obfuscation of Being in his incomplete tome, Being and Time (1927), and the philosopher of science Karl Popper argued in The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945) that Plato's alleged proposal for a utopian political regime in the Republic was prototypically totalitarian.

The Dutch historian of science Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis criticizes Plato, stating that he was guilty of "constructing an imaginary nature by reasoning from preconceived principles and forcing reality more or less to adapt itself to this construction."(180) Dijksterhuis adds that one of the errors into which Plato had "fallen in an almost grotesque manner, consisted in an over-estimation of what unaided thought, i.e. without recourse to experience, could achieve in the field of natural science."(181)

Legacy

In the arts

Plato's Academy mosaic was created in the villa of T. Siminius Stephanus in Pompeii, around 100 BC to 100 CE. The School of Athens fresco by Raphael features Plato also as a central figure. The Nuremberg Chronicle depicts Plato and other as anachornistic schoolmen.

In philosophy

Plato's thought is often compared with that of his most famous student, Aristotle, whose reputation during the Western Middle Ages so completely eclipsed that of Plato that the Scholastic philosophers referred to Aristotle as "the Philosopher". However, in the Byzantine Empire, the study of Plato continued.

The only Platonic work known to western scholarship was Timée, until translations were made after the fall of Constantinople, which occurred during 1453.(182)George Gemistos Plethon brought Plato's original writings from Constantinople in the century of its fall. It is believed that Plethon passed a copy of the Dialogues to Cosimo de' Medici when in 1438 the Council of Ferrara, called to unify the Greek and Latin Churches, was adjourned to Florence, where Plethon then lectured on the relation and differences of Plato and Aristotle, and fired Cosimo with his enthusiasm; Cosimo would supply Marsilio Ficino with Plato's text for translation to Latin. During the early Islamic era, Persian and Arab scholars translated much of Plato into Arabic and wrote commentaries and interpretations on Plato's, Aristotle's and other Platonist philosophers' works (see Al-Farabi, Avicenna, Averroes, Hunayn ibn Ishaq). Many of these comments on Plato were translated from Arabic into Latin and as such influenced Medieval scholastic philosophers.(184)

During the Renaissance, with the general resurgence of interest in classical civilization, knowledge of Plato's philosophy would become widespread again in the West. Many of the greatest early modern scientists and artists who broke with Scholasticism and fostered the flowering of the Renaissance, with the support of the Plato-inspired Lorenzo (grandson of Cosimo), saw Plato's philosophy as the basis for progress in the arts and sciences. His political views, too, were well-received: the vision of wise philosopher-kings of the Republic matched the views set out in works such as Machiavelli's The Prince. More problematic was Plato's belief in metempsychosis as well as his ethical views (on polyamory and euthanasia in particular), which did not match those of Christianity. It was Plethon's student Bessarion who reconciled Plato with Christian theology, arguing that Plato's views were only ideals, unattainable due to the fall of man.(185) The Cambridge Platonists were around in the 17th century.

By the 19th century, Plato's reputation was restored, and at least on par with Aristotle's. Notable Western philosophers have continued to draw upon Plato's work since that time. Plato's influence has been especially strong in mathematics and the sciences. Plato's resurgence further inspired some of the greatest advances in logic since Aristotle, primarily through Gottlob Frege and his followers Kurt Gödel, Alonzo Church, and Alfred Tarski. Albert Einstein suggested that the scientist who takes philosophy seriously would have to avoid systematization and take on many different roles, and possibly appear as a Platonist or Pythagorean, in that such a one would have "the viewpoint of logical simplicity as an indispensable and effective tool of his research."

"The safest general characterisation of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." (Alfred North Whitehead, Process and Reality, 1929).

The political philosopher and professor Leo Strauss is considered by some as the prime thinker involved in the recovery of Platonic thought in its more political, and less metaphysical, form. Strauss' political approach was in part inspired by the appropriation of Plato and Aristotle by medieval Jewish and Islamic political philosophers, especially Maimonides and Al-Farabi, as opposed to the Christian metaphysical tradition that developed from Neoplatonism. Deeply influenced by Nietzsche and Heidegger, Strauss nonetheless rejects their condemnation of Plato and looks to the dialogues for a solution to what all three latter day thinkers acknowledge as 'the crisis of the West.'

W. V. O. Quine dubbed the problem of negative existentials "Plato's beard". Noam Chomsky dubbed the problem of knowledge Plato's problem. One author calls the definist fallacy the Socratic fallacy.

More broadly, platonism (sometimes distinguished from Plato's particular view by the lowercase) refers to the view that there are many abstract objects. Still to this day, platonists take number and the truths of mathematics as the best support in favor of this view. Most mathematicians think, like platonists, that numbers and the truths of mathematics are perceived by reason rather than the senses yet exist independently of minds and people, that is to say, they are discovered rather than invented.

Contemporary platonism is also more open to the idea of there being infinitely many abstract objects, as numbers or propositions might qualify as abstract objects, while ancient Platonism seemed to resist this view, possibly because of the need to overcome the problem of "the One and the Many". Thus e. g. in the Parmenides dialogue, Plato denies there are Forms for more mundane things like hair and mud. However, he repeatedly does support the idea that there are Forms of artifacts, e. g. the Form of Bed. Contemporary platonism also tends to view abstract objects as unable to cause anything, but it's unclear whether the ancient Platonists felt this way.

Voir aussi

remarques

  1. ^ "…the subject of philosophy, as it is often conceived—a rigorous and systematic examination of ethical, political, metaphysical, and epistemological issues, armed with a distinctive method—can be called his invention."(3)
  2. ^ "Though influenced primarily by Socrates, to the extent that Socrates is usually the main character in many of Plato's writings, he was also influenced by Heraclitus, Parmenides, and the Pythagoreans"(6)
  3. ^ Diogenes Laërtius mentions that Plato "was born, according to some writers, in Aegina in the house of Phidiades the son of Thales". Diogenes mentions as one of his sources the Universal History of Favorinus. According to Favorinus, Ariston, Plato's family, and his family were sent by Athens to settle as cleruchs (colonists retaining their Athenian citizenship), on the island of Aegina, from which they were expelled by the Spartans after Plato's birth there.(13) Nails points out, however, that there is no record of any Spartan expulsion of Athenians from Aegina between 431–411 BC. On the other hand, at the Peace of Nicias, Aegina was silently left under Athens' control, and it was not until the summer of 411 that the Spartans overran the island.(15) Therefore, Nails concludes that "perhaps Ariston was a cleruch, perhaps he went to Aegina in 431, and perhaps Plato was born on Aegina, but none of this enables a precise dating of Ariston's death (or Plato's birth). Aegina is regarded as Plato's place of birth by the Suda as well.(16)
  4. ^ Apollodorus of Athens said Plato was born on the seventh day of the month Thargelion; according to this tradition the god Apollo was born this day.(17)Renaissance Platonists celebrated Plato's birth on November 7.Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff estimates that Plato was born when Diotimos was archon eponymous, namely between July 29, 428 BC and July 24, 427 BC. Greek philologist Ioannis Kalitsounakis believes that he was born on May 26 or 27, 427 BC.(20)(21)
  5. ^ According to James Adam, some have held that "Glaucon and Adeimantus were uncles of Plato, but Zeller decides for the usual view that they were brothers."(29)
  6. ^ Jeremiah’s ministry was active from the thirteenth year of Josiah, king of Judah (3298 HC, 463 BCE, until after the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomon’s Temple in 403 BCE (3358 HC.(recherche originale?)
  7. ^ Not to be confused with Anniceris the Cyrenaic philosopher.
  8. ^ He regarded "logistic" as appropriate for business men and men of war who "must learn the art of numbers or he will not know how to array his troops," while "arithmetic" was appropriate for philosophers "because he has to arise out of the sea of change and lay hold of true being."(68)
  9. ^ Plotinus describes this in the last part of his final Ennead (VI, 9) entitled On the Good, or the One (Περὶ τἀγαθοῦ ἢ τοῦ ἑνός). Jens Halfwassen states in Der Aufstieg zum Einen' (2006) that "Plotinus' ontology—which should be called Plotinus' henology—is a rather accurate philosophical renewal and continuation of Plato's unwritten doctrine, i.e. the doctrine rediscovered by Krämer and Gaiser."
  10. ^ In one of his letters (Epistolae 1612) Ficino writes: "The main goal of the divine Plato … is to show one principle of things, which he called the One (τὸ ἕν)", cf. Montoriola 1926, p. 147.
  11. ^ For a brief description of the problem see for example Gaiser 1980. A more detailed analysis is given by Krämer 1990. Another description is by Reale 1997 and Reale 1990. A thorough analysis of the consequences of such an approach is given by Szlezak 1999. Another supporter of this interpretation is the German philosopher Karl Albert, cf. Albert 1980 or Albert 1996. Hans-Georg Gadamer is also sympathetic towards it, cf. Grondin 2010 and Gadamer 1980. Gadamer's final position on the subject is stated in Gadamer 1997.
  12. ^ Some use the term allegori instead of myth. This is in accordance with the practice in the specialized literature, in which it is common to find that the terms allegory and myth are used as synonyms. Nevertheless, there is a trend among modern scholars to use the term myte and avoid the term allegory, as it is considered more appropriate to modern interpretation of Plato's writings. One of the first to initiate this trend was the Oxford University professor John Alexander Stewart, in his work The Myths of Plato.
  13. ^ "The time is not long after the death of Socrates; for the Pythagoreans (Echecrates & co.) have not heard any details yet".(131)

références

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    • Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 2005, p. 46
  7. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, Life of Plato, I
  8. ^ un b Guthrie 1986, p. 10
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  9. ^ Apuleius, De Dogmate Platonis, 1
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  11. ^ Thucydides, 5.18
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  21. ^ Nails 2002, p. 53
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  52. ^ Theaetetus 156a
  53. ^ Theaetetus 201c–d
  54. ^ Meno 97d–98a
  55. ^ Theaetetus 210a–b
  56. ^ Republic 473c–d
  57. ^ Republic 475c
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  67. ^ Physics 209b
  68. ^ Phaedrus 276c
  69. ^ Seventh Letter 344c
  70. ^ Seventh Letter 341c
  71. ^ Seventh Letter 344d
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  73. ^ Metaphysics 987b
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  76. ^ Apology38b
  77. ^ Phaedo 59b
  78. ^ Theaetetus 210d
  79. ^ Euthyphro 2a–b
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  90. ^ Republic 3.403b
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  101. ^ Brickhouse & Smith.
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  104. ^ Brandwood 1990, p. 77.
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  113. ^ Platonis opera quae extant omnia edidit Henricus Stephanus, Genevae, 1578.
  114. ^ Oxford Classical Texts – Classical Studies & Ancient History Series. Oxford University Press
  115. ^ Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics – Series. Cambridge University Press
  116. ^ Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries. Cambridge University Press
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  120. ^ Dijksterhuis, Eduard Jan (1969). The mechanization of the world picture. Translated by C. Dikshoorn. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. s. 69.
  121. ^ Dijksterjuis, Eduard Jan (1969). The mechanization of the world picture. Translated by C. Dikshoorn. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. s. 118.
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  123. ^ See Burrell 1998 and Hasse 2002, pp. 33–45.
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Works cited

Primary sources (Greek and Roman)

  • Apuleius, De Dogmate Platonis, I. See original text in Latin Library.
  • Aristophanes, The Wasps. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Aristotle, Metaphysics. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Cicero, De Divinatione, I. See original text in Latin library.
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Lectures complémentaires

  • Alican, Necip Fikri (2012). Rethinking Plato: A Cartesian Quest for the Real Plato. Amsterdam and New York: Editions Rodopi B.V. ISBN 978-90-420-3537-9.
  • Allen, R.E. (1965). Studies in Plato&#39;s Metaphysics II. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-7100-3626-4
  • Ambuel, David (2007). Image and Paradigm in Plato&#39;s Sophist. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-04-9
  • Anderson, Mark; Osborn, Ginger (2009). Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues (PDF). Nashville: Belmont University.
  • Arieti, James A. Interpreting Plato: The Dialogues as Drama, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-8476-7662-5
  • Bakalis, Nikolaos (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-4120-4843-5
  • Barrow, Robin (2007). Plato: Continuum Library of Educational Thought. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-8408-6.
  • Cadame, Claude (1999). Indigenous and Modern Perspectives on Tribal Initiation Rites: Education According to Plato, pp. 278–312, in Padilla, Mark William (editor), "Rites of Passage in Ancient Greece: Literature, Religion, Society", Bucknell University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8387-5418-X
  • Cooper, John M.; Hutchinson, D.S., eds. (1997). Plato: Complete Works. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-87220-349-5.
  • Corlett, J. Angelo (2005). Interpreting Plato&#39;s Dialogues. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-02-5
  • Durant, Will (1926). The Story of Philosophy. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-69500-2.
  • Derrida, Jacques (1972). La dissémination, Paris: Seuil. (esp. cap.: La Pharmacie de Platon, 69–199) ISBN 2-02-001958-2
  • Field, G.C. (1969). The Philosophy of Plato (2nd ed. with an appendix by Cross, R.C. ed.). London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-888040-0.
  • Fine, Gail (2000). Plato 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology Oxford University Press, US, ISBN 0-19-875206-7
  • Finley, M.I. (1969). Aspects of antiquity: Discoveries and Controversies The Viking Press, Inc., US
  • Garvey, James (2006). Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-9053-7.
  • Guthrie, W.K.C. (1986). A History of Greek Philosophy (Plato – The Man & His Dialogues – Earlier Period), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-31101-2
  • Guthrie, W.K.C. (1986). A History of Greek Philosophy (Later Plato & the Academy) Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-31102-0
  • Havelock, Eric (2005). Preface to Plato (History of the Greek Mind), Belknap Press, ISBN 0-674-69906-8
  • Hamilton, Edith; Cairns, Huntington, eds. (1961). The Collected Dialogues of Plato, Including the Letters. Princeton Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09718-3.
  • Harvard University Press publishes the hardbound series Loeb Classical Library, containing Plato&#39;s works in Greek, with English translations on facing pages.
  • Irvine, Andrew David (2008). Socrates on Trial: A play based on Aristophanes&#39; Clouds and Plato&#39;s Apology, Crito, and Phaedo, adapted for modern performance. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.ISBN 978-0-8020-9783-5, 978-0-8020-9538-1
  • Hermann, Arnold (2010). Plato&#39;s Parmenides: Text, Translation & Introductory Essay, Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-71-1
  • Irwin, Terence (1995). Plato&#39;s Ethics, Oxford University Press, US, ISBN 0-19-508645-7
  • Jackson, Roy (2001). Plato: A Beginner&#39;s Guide. London: Hoder & Stroughton. ISBN 978-0-340-80385-1.
  • Jowett, Benjamin (1892). (The Dialogues of Plato. Translated into English with analyses and introductions by B. Jowett.), Oxford Clarendon Press, UK, UIN:BLL01002931898
  • Kochin, Michael S. (2002). Gender and Rhetoric in Plato&#39;s Political Thought. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80852-1.
  • Kraut, Richard, ed. (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Plato. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43610-6.
  • Lilar, Suzanne (1954), Journal de l&#39;analogiste, Paris, Éditions Julliard; Reedited 1979, Paris, Grasset. Foreword by Julien Gracq
  • Lilar, Suzanne (1963), Le couple, Paris, Grasset. Translated as Aspects of Love in Western Society in 1965, with a foreword by Jonathan Griffin London, Thames and Hudson.
  • Lilar, Suzanne (1967) A propos de Sartre et de l&#39;amour , Paris, Grasset.
  • Lundberg, Phillip (2005). Tallyho – The Hunt for Virtue: Beauty, Truth and Goodness Nine Dialogues by Plato: Pheadrus, Lysis, Protagoras, Charmides, Parmenides, Gorgias, Theaetetus, Meno & Sophist. Authorhouse. ISBN 978-1-4184-4977-3.
  • Márquez, Xavier (2012) A Stranger&#39;s Knowledge: Statesmanship, Philosophy & Law in Plato&#39;s Statesman, Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-79-7
  • Melchert, Norman (2002). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-19-517510-3.
  • Miller, Mitchell (2004). The Philosopher in Plato&#39;s Statesman. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-16-2
  • Mohr, Richard D. (2006). God and Forms in Plato – and other Essays in Plato&#39;s Metaphysics. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-01-8
  • Mohr, Richard D. (Ed.), Sattler, Barbara M. (Ed.) (2010) One Book, The Whole Universe: Plato&#39;s Timaeus Today, Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-32-2
  • Moore, Edward (2007). Plato. Philosophy Insights Series. Tirril, Humanities-Ebooks. ISBN 978-1-84760-047-9
  • Nightingale, Andrea Wilson. (1995). "Genres in Dialogue: Plato and the Construct of Philosophy", Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48264-X
  • Oxford University Press publishes scholarly editions of Plato&#39;s Greek texts in the Oxford Classical Texts series, and some translations in the Clarendon Plato Series.
  • Patterson, Richard (Ed.), Karasmanis, Vassilis (Ed.), Hermann, Arnold (Ed.) (2013) Presocratics & Plato: Festschrift at Delphi in Honor of Charles Kahn, Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-75-9
  • Sallis, John (1996). Being and Logos: Reading the Platonic Dialogues. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21071-5.
  • Sallis, John (1999). Chorology: On Beginning in Plato&#39;s "Timaeus". Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21308-2.
  • Sayre, Kenneth M. (2005). Plato&#39;s Late Ontology: A Riddle Resolved. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-09-4
  • Seung, T.K. (1996). Plato Rediscovered: Human Value and Social Order. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8112-2
  • Smith, William. (1867). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. University of Michigan/Online version.
  • Stewart, John. (2010). Kierkegaard and the Greek World – Socrates and Plato. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-6981-4
  • Thesleff, Holger (2009). Platonic Patterns: A Collection of Studies by Holger Thesleff, Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-29-2
  • Thomas Taylor has translated Plato&#39;s complete works.
  • Thomas Taylor (1804). The Works of Plato, viz. His Fifty-Five Dialogues and Twelve Epistles 5 vols
  • Vlastos, Gregory (1981). Platonic Studies, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-10021-7
  • Vlastos, Gregory (2006). Plato&#39;s Universe – with a new Introducution by Luc Brisson, Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-13-1
  • Zuckert, Catherine (2009). Plato&#39;s Philosophers: The Coherence of the Dialogues, The University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-99335-5

External links


Les solides de Platon sont des formes qui déterminent partie de la forme sacrée. Ils ont d’abord été catalogués par l’ancien philosophe Platon ( d’où leur nom ), bien que des preuves de ces formes les plus magiques aient été trouvées dans le monde entier plus de 1 000 ans avant la documentation de Platon. nIls sont constitués des’Cinq Polyèdres Réguliers Convexes’ : hexaèdre ( cube ), octaèdre ( double pyramide inversée ), tétraèdre ( pyramide ), Icosoèdre et dodécaèdre. Les noms sont dérivés du volume de côtés de chaque forme : 4, 6, 8, 12 et 20 respectivement. nLes quatre premières formes correspondent aux composants : la terre ( hexaèdre ), l’air ( octaèdre ), le feu ( tétraèdre ) et l’eau ( Icosoèdre ), la cinquième, dodécaèdre, représentant le ciel, l’éther ou l’Univers.

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